Wanhao duplicator i3 3D printer settings for printing PLA and ABS plastic.
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In this article, we provide the optimal settings for the Wanhao duplicator i3 3D printer in the Cura program, for printing PLA and ABS plastic.
The easiest way to set up printing duplicator i3, so as NOT to understand the many points and values and is guaranteed to get a high-quality print, is to download and install a ready-made G-code profile (computer numerical control (CNC) programming language. In the profile we have set the optimal settings speed, temperature and printing characteristics for ABS, or PLA plastic.
You can read about installing and configuring the CURA program for the duplicator i3 3D printer in a separate article, follow the link: Printing from the CURA program on the Wanhao Duplicator i3 3D printer
Download the profile from our website:
|G-code profile for PLA plastic|
|G-code profile for ABS plastic|
Run the Cura program and load the model:
Go to the “file” menu in the “Load profile from G-code” section, find the downloaded profile for your type of material, unzip and load it into the program.
As you can see, the values have changed in both the basic and advanced settings.
If necessary, set the type of support and the type of sticking to the table, Save the model to the SD card and you can start printing. No additional printer settings required.
You can always change the values you want for better printing and save your own settings profile.
Attention! These settings are optimized for printing with ESUN PLA plastic on the Wanhao duplicator i3 v.1.0 and duplicator i3 v.2.0 3D printer. When using the material of the second manufacturer, we DO NOT guarantee stable and high-quality printing.
PLA plastic, (Polyactide, PLA) The most popular type of material for printing on 3D printers with FDM printing technology. PLA plastic is a biodegradable, biocompatible, thermoplastic aliphatic polyester, the structural unit of which. Lactic acid. PLA plastic is made from corn or sugarcane. Potato and corn starch, soy protein, cassava tubers, cellulose are also used as raw materials.
PLA is the ideal material for 3D printing prototypes and products. These can be decorative objects, presentation items, and items that require careful detail. The distinctive features of PLA plastics include:
- Wide color palette;
- When printing, there is a need for a heated platform;
- Dimensions are stable;
- Ideal for moving parts and mechanical models;
- Excellent sliding of parts;
- Energy savings due to low whining softening temperature;
- There is a need to use kapton to lubricate the surface for building up the prototype;
- The smoothness of the surface of the printed product;
- Obtaining more detailed and completely ready-to-use objects.
ABS plastic (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, ABS) is an impact-resistant thermoplastic that has gained high popularity in industry and in additive manufacturing.
The excellent mechanical and physical properties of ABS plastic make it possible to use this material to create all kinds of objects of practical value. ABS plastic is widely used in the automotive, medical and souvenir industries, in the production of sports equipment, plumbing, bank cards, furniture, toys, etc. The distinctive features of PLA plastic include:
- Almost unlimited color gamut
- Moisture resistance
- Acid resistance
- Oil resistance
- Relatively high heat resistance, reaching 115 ° C for some grades of material
- Non-toxic at low temperatures and in the absence of alcohol exposure
- Increased impact resistance
- High elasticity
- High durability in the absence of direct sunlight
- Easy to machine
- Good affordability
- High solubility in acetone
What type of material to print should you choose, but if you are a beginner in the field of 3D printing and just mastering this technology, then we recommend choosing PLA plastic, due to its unpretentiousness, simplicity and more accurate detailing during printing.
3D printing of polyamide on FDM
Polyamides are a wide range of filaments with unique physical properties. Thick-walled PA products are rigid, while thin-walled PA products are flexible. Including due to this property, the material is suitable for printing products that are completely different in properties and purpose. In addition to pure filaments, there are modifications on the market reinforced with carbon fiber, fiberglass and other additives.
However, storage and printing of polyamide requires special conditions. Read the article to learn about the different nuances of FDM 3D printing of polyamide.
To learn about 3D printing polyamide with the more efficient and costly SLS technology used in industry and design, read our in-depth SLS review.
Polyamides are a wide variety of polymers with building blocks having amide groups. Polyamides occur naturally as proteins, and wool and silk are known examples. Synthesized polyamides are used in various industries.
In the laboratory, polyamide was first synthesized by the American chemist Wallace Carothers in 1931. Seven years later, commercial production of nylon 6.6 began. The first mass-produced product to use nylon was Dr West’s Miracle Tuft toothbrush. Bristle was made from polyamide.
In the 1940s, the production of the alternative material Nylon 6 was launched, and in the following decades, Nylon 12 Nylon 4,6 and other brands of synthetic polyamides appeared on the market. This material is used in various fields. It is used to sew inexpensive durable clothes, to produce exterior elements of cars (door handles and radiator grilles), switches on electrical panels, tightening on roller skates and many other details with which we interact every day. One of the most famous polyamides for its exceptional strength is Kevlar.
Polyamide is a light plastic, the physical properties of which depend on the thickness of the product. Thin-walled products are flexible but durable. Solid nylon products are tough, comparable to those made of ABS plastic. Nylon tolerates temperature fluctuations well, it is resistant to abrasion and ultraviolet radiation.
The main characteristics of the polymer (for Nylon 6):
Density: 1.14 g / cm;
Strength and flexibility;
Resistant to dilute acids and alkaline solutions at room temperature;
Melting point: 221 ° C;
Glass transition temperature 45 ° C;
Heat resistant up to 160 ° C.
The two most important polyamides are hexamethylene adipamide (nylon 6,6) and polycaprolactam (nylon 6). The materials have exceptional mechanical properties: high tensile strength, high flexibility, good elasticity and high toughness. They are easy to paint and show excellent wear resistance due to a range of coefficient of friction (self-lubrication). Both polyamides have a high melting point and glass transition temperature, which provides good mechanical properties at elevated temperatures.
Nylon 6 and Nylon 6.6 are resistant to oils, alkalis and many solvents. The main limitation of the material is the filament’s strong sensitivity to moisture (water acts as a plasticizer). For example, the tensile strength of wet polyamide can be 50 percent inferior to that of dry polyamide. Compared to these materials, nylon 12 is less hygroscopic: this property provides a large number of methylene groups in the polymer backbone. Nylon 12 has better moisture resistance, dimensional stability and electrical properties, but the melting point and mechanical properties of the material are lower.
Along with pure polymer, composite filaments with carbon fiber are available for 3D printing.
Advantages and disadvantages
Resistant to high temperatures;
High tensile strength;
Flexibility, which depends on the dimensions of the finished product;
Resistant to UV radiation;
No unpleasant odor in the 3D printing process;
Possibility of filament dyeing and dyeing on the finished product;
Complex printing process.
The harmful effect of polyamide is possible when processing at temperatures above 300 ° C. In this case, the release of toxic substances: ammonia, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide is possible. Irritation of the upper respiratory tract occurs if poisoning with decomposition products or inhalation of nylon dust.
Although polyamide does NOT generate an unpleasant odor during the 3D printing process, it is recommended to carry out the work in a well-ventilated area.
The use of polyamide in 3D printing
3D printing polyamide has proven itself in various areas of industry and design. With a 3D printer and polyamide filament, you can create durable mechanical parts and design items. One of the features of nylon, along with abrasion resistance, is self-lubrication. Therefore, gears are created from nylon on an industrial and artificial scale. Various types of plastic ties are also made from nylon: the products are optimally flexible.
Nylon is superior to other common plastics in terms of tactile sensations. Therefore, for decades, fabrics have been produced from it, from which Traditional clothes are created. In 2014, New York-based design studio Nervous System introduced the world to an original 3D-printed Nylon dress (see photo above). The idea is that each dress is printed specifically for the figure: the designer gets the required size after scanning the body. The top is printed on a 3D printer in one piece. It consists of 2.2 thousand triangles connected by 3.3 thousand hinges.
This design vibrates plastically during movement, which creates a unique image.
Features of 3D printing polyamide
Polyamide filaments are quite hygroscopic, so they can even absorb atmospheric moisture. To prevent the filament from becoming damp, it must be sealed in a vacuum bag with silica gel before long-term storage. If there is a suspicion of improper storage of nylon, before printing, the filament should be dried in a special dryer, for example. Wanhao Boxman-2.
Before printing polyamide, a number of steps must be taken to adhere the first layer. It is recommended to use a glass work table covered with a harolite or PEI plate. The print bed should be greased with glue and heated to 60. 90 ° C, for some types of filament the temperature of the print bed should be brought to 120 ° C. To reduce the risk of warping of the layers, it is better to use a closed type 3D printer.
Print speed and parameters
Nylon 3D printing is allowed at high speed: up to 70 mm / s. When printing an item containing a large amount of small parts, the optimal speed may be less than 40 mm / s.
Cooling when printing
Polyamide is printed at a high temperature, due to which even partial cooling can lead to warping of the layers. To ensure maximum print quality, the coolers must be turned off. Best for 3D printed nylon products, equipped with a heated camera.
Processing of polyamide parts
The peculiarity of nylon is that the product can be used immediately after printing. If printing was carried out with the introduction of readily soluble PVA support, then the dissolution of the supports in water will be the only action. To prevent warping, it is recommended to print products from nylon with raft. this is an additional layer on the base of the product that increases adhesion to the platform. When printing with raft, after removing the part from the platform, it can be easily removed.
Painting finished nylon products is a fairly simple process. For work, you need a vessel with water, a dye for synthetic materials, a load to keep the product in water, a plate, and two vessels for painting and cooling. Before painting, make sure that there are no traces of glue or masking tape on the parts. In a vessel for painting, dilute the required amount of dye, place the vessel on the stove and bring the temperature to 60. 70 ° C, lower the nylon product into the solution and wait a few minutes to get the color of optimal saturation. Then cool the painted part in cold water.
Polyamide is a rather difficult material to bond. The simplest solution would be polyurethane glue, which is designed for gluing literally any materials. Another versatile method is using epoxy. Regular superglue (cyanoacrylate) can also be used, but excellent results are not guaranteed.
Popular 3D printers that print polyamide
Anycubic MEGA X
Platform temperature: 100 ° C
Extruder temperature 250 ° C;
Layer height: 0.2mm.
For 3D printing of polyamide, you can use budget open-type printers, for example Anycubic MEGA X. It is recommended to heat the glass table to 100 ° C and grease with glue for adhesion.
Picaso Designer X Pro
Platform temperature 90 ° C;
Extruder temperature 240 ° C;
Layer height: 0.2mm.
The Picaso3D Designer X Pro 3D Printer allows you to adjust the platform temperature, chamber temperature and extruder temperature in a wide range of values. The closed temperature-controlled chamber makes it much easier to print with materials that are difficult in other conditions, and is best suited for printing polyamide.
Polyamide printing problems
The most common problems when printing with nylon are warpage and delamination. It should be remembered that polyamide is a material that requires special storage conditions and careful preparation before printing.
Nylon is a hygroscopic material that over time absorbs moisture even at room temperature. If printed with damp filament, the model will delaminate. The second problem, warpage, is caused by errors during the printing process. Since nylon products are printed at a high temperature of the extruder and the printing table, during operation, on an open-type 3D printer, the material that is NOT yet frozen can cool sharply due to the relatively low ambient temperature, which will lead to a shortage.
To prevent delamination of the part, you should:
For long-term storage, the filament is vacuum sealed with silica gel.
Before printing, especially under unknown conditions, Dry the spool of filament in a specially designed device.
To avoid distortion of the part, it is recommended:
Use closed-type printers with heated printing chamber.
Use adhesive to adhere the first layer.
Add raft details to the bottom layers. wide fields with a height of several layers.
Examples of printed polyamide products
The use of polyamides significantly expands the capabilities of 3D printing professionals. Polyamide printing opens up wide opportunities for creative searches. when creating relatively small products, you can get a noticeable difference in the physical properties of finished objects by slightly changing the parameters of the printed object. Since polyamide allows for both flexible and rigid structures, it can be called a versatile material for 3D printing.
Buy polyamides from Top 3D Shop. get original quality materials at a reasonable price.
How to properly print on a 3D printer
Printing on a 3D printer at first glance only seems very simple, but in fact, the first time you do something, it will be very difficult to print everything. Problems may arise when printing, and your model will turn out, to put it mildly, not the best (5 printing problems and how to solve them). Also, you can make mistakes during 3D modeling (5 mistakes when creating a 3D model).
And so let’s start printing. But stop, first you need to do something:
First, you need to be sure that your model is correct and without errors, the Netfabb program will help you in this, which will automatically correct all errors during modeling. After you correct the mistakes in your model (if you have difficulty using Google to help you), you can start printing.
But first, you need to decide what kind of plastic you will use. Each plastic has its own pros and cons. You can see and select which plastic is available here. Having chosen plastic, you should know at what temperature to use this plastic (printing temperature, platform temperature). The most popular plastics for 3D printing are ABS and PLA. This article will help you choose a plastic (PLA or ABS, which plastic is better?). True PLA is more suitable for newbies in 3D printing.
After that, you can start setting up a 3D printer, or rather:
- Platform Calibration
We will NOT write about this in detail, since there is already a lot of information on the Internet and it will NOT be difficult to find it. But let’s say that most manufacturers took care of platform calibration and added this function to the 3D printer menu;
- Filling with plastic 3D printer
After installing the spool and pulling the end of the plastic through its feed channel to the extruder with the printheads, select the Appropriate mode to insert it into the extruder. Some time after warming up and grabbing the plastic by the mechanics of its feeding from the nozzle of the extruder, a thin rod will begin to appear to warm up, but quickly cooling plastic.
To avoid such a problem as peeling corners when printing, be sure to glue blue tape to the platform. It will allow you to use the platform at low temperatures, or without heating at all, will also improve the quality of adhesion of the object to the platform, protect the platform from damage and allow you to separate the finished model without harm to it.
After that, you can start printing, add your 3D model in STL format, adjust the temperature of the platform and extruder on a 3D printer and start printing:
- ABS: printing temperature. 210-245 ° C; platform temperature. 110-120 ° C.
- PLA: print temperature. 195-220 ° C; platform temperature. 70 ° C.
Setting up the printer printing from a computer
Having correctly configured the printer, you can get any text and graphic information on paper in a matter of seconds. This process will NOT take too much of your time.
In order to properly connect the printer to your computer, you will need to follow three simple steps:
Connect the device to the computer using a USB cable;
Connect it to the network;
Make the desired settings.
Everyone will probably be able to connect the device to the power supply, and this step should NOT cause absolutely no difficulties. A USB cable is usually included with the device, but it is also sold separately. The cable has two ends with different plugs on them. You need to connect the type A connector to the computer.
Most manufacturers pre-pack their equipment with CDs containing the necessary drivers and software. As soon as you have connected the equipment to the computer, you must immediately insert this disc into the drive. Start the installation process and prompts with further actions and recommendations will appear on the screen.
How to do without a driver disc
You can easily find a way out of this situation, but provided that the Internet is turned on.
Algorithm of actions:
Turn on the computer, and wait until the operating system is fully loaded;
Connect the printer via USB cable, and wait for the Initialization;
Go to the Internet and find the official website of the device manufacturer. Then click on “Support & Drivers”;
You will see the search term in it you must enter the exact name of the model;
Then select the program you need, indicate your OS type and click download;
When the download is complete, open the file and start the installation;
Reboot your PC;
If after the actions you have taken, the device will still NOT be available to start work, perform a few more actions;
Start-up. Devices and printers;
After selecting your device, right-click on it and select “Set as default”;
With the help of THESE simple steps, you can install the necessary drivers and proceed to the next installation step.
How to set up your printer for printing
Before you start printing, you need to set up your hardware correctly.
You can do this based on the instructions described below:
Enter the control panel;
A window will open in front of you in which you will need to select Printers and other equipment;
Then select Printers and Faxes;
In the window that appears, you can see all the devices installed on your computer, select the one you need;
A small menu will appear on the left side in which you need to select the Configure Print Settings.
Select page layout, number of sheets, paper quality, print mode.
These are just some of the features you need to select. They may differ depending on the model. Read carefully what is written there and choose the right one. As you can see, setting up a printer for printing is not so difficult, the main thing is not to rush.
Printer. setting, printing photos on disk. Changing the default printer
Quite often there are situations when several printers are connected to one computer at once. Of course, every time you print, you can select the desired device, but this will have to do a few unnecessary steps.
For this problem, you can find a suitable solution. make the default printer:
Enter the control panel;
Select the Printers and Faxes section;
Double-click on Needed device and check the box next to the word use by default;
If you assume that you will have to perform these actions often, then the printers and faxes folder can be moved to the desktop.
After installation, you need to print the first test page. This allows you to check if everything is done correctly. Thanks to the test page, you can also check the print color. In addition, it will contain all information about the driver version, as well as the printer model. This sheet must be saved, because in case of any problems it will be useful.
You need to configure the ZYXEL KEENETIC LITE router. Details here.
We print the test page correctly:
Enter the control panel;
Select the printer you need and move the cursor over it. I pressed the right button, you will see a small menu from which you need to select the property item;
In it, open the tab called General and then Test Print. If this new device or has NOT been used for a long time, you will have to wait a few seconds. Then the print speed will be much faster.
After printing is finished DO NOT close the page, but evaluate the print quality of a test page.
Some users have situations when they need to change the settings. They are usually set on the ports tab in the printer properties window. It is here that you can change the type of printing (for landscape printing, etc.), the connection port to which the equipment is always connected. For landscape printing, by the way, it is very convenient to print photos, since this particular page format is more suitable for this.
As for the second settings, for example, such as print mode, print queue, limited access time to the device, all this can also be changed in this dialog box.
When creating a particular type of file, it doesn’t matter if it is a document or a photograph, sooner or later you will need to print it on paper.
There are several different ways in which you can send a document for printing:
If Windows7 is installed on your computer, then you need to name it in the upper left corner of the document;
Fast. This method is good precisely because it allows you to print the entire document at once in a single copy. But since sometimes you only need to print one or two pages, it is not always convenient to use it;
Usual. By choosing this method, a window will appear in front of you. In it you can select the required number of copies, printing on both sides (printing a document on both sides of A4 sheet) and other functions;
In order to get certain pages, you can specify the necessary numbers in the number field.
Anyone, even the most NOT experienced user, can easily figure out these simple actions.
Job and print queue management
By managing print queues, the user has full control over all documents sent to the queue. You can view and resend print jobs at any time. But you can, for example, send a document to the favorites section, this will eliminate the need to perform operations to send a document for printing every time.
There are three main print queues:
Straight lines. They will allow you to receive a printed document on a pre-designated printer;
Safe. All print jobs will each block until you are authenticated;
Are common. Completely different users can perform the same tasks.
There are times when the document was not printed due to an error, and you already need to Get the next one. But the printer will insist on printing the first document. You just need to clear the print queue.
This is done simply:
Go to the control panel;
Select your printer and right click on it. A small context menu will appear, in which you need to select a term to clear the print queue;
After confirming this action, you can get to work and print a completely new document.
Setting the print color
A color profile is a large set of different commands for a printing device, which are written as a file. Many of you have probably seen the print modes in the settings: matte paper, glossy. Each of THESE settings stores its own color profile.
But since not everyone can afford it, you will have to look for an alternative. The color profile is built for a specific printer, paper and ink. This is a very important point to remember. After all, color is an important moment when printing documents and photos.
From the official site you need to download the Adobe Photoshop program and install it. Then find your printer, right click on it and select properties. A new window will appear in front of you, in which click on the color management item. Then choose your device and remember.
A window with settings will open again before you; on different computers they may differ. But in general, you just need to select the options you want and save them. And then just print a test page and see the result.
Installing and configuring the printer is fairly straightforward. Having previously studied the necessary information, you yourself, without the help of a specialist, will be able to perform all the above actions.
Printing nylon on a cold table 3D printer
Recently, we received a package from Plexiwire. The package contained samples of three types of Nylon material for testing. Nylon, Nylon1% and Nylon2.5%. Since we had a Nylon probe, it was decided to benchmark four samples.
Externally, the material for 3D printing Nylon differs in color. It has a natural natural color, other samples. Slightly more transparent.
By the start of printing, as expected, the tested Nylon materials were dried in the oven to dry the polymers at 80 ° C for four 4 hours.
To determine the optimum temperature for working with Nylon plastic, the essence of the first test consisted of printing temperature bars. In the entire temperature range from 260 to 222 degrees in the process of 3D printing, the plastic lay flat and did NOT delaminate.
With mechanical stress. Cutting the temperature column with a stationery knife. Determined that the layers split from 220 to 235 degrees, and at a temperature of 240 0 C and higher the sintering capacity of the layers is good and the product DOES NOT split.
Small double helical gear was selected as a test model.
In order to ensure good adhesion to the table, one of our proven printing methods was applied with the following settings:
3D printing options:
Head temperature. 260 ° C. the first two layers. 245 ° C subsequent
Table temperature. 40 ° С
Layer height. 0.25 mm
Filling density. 50%
Print speed along the outer border. 20 mm / s
Print speed along the inner border. 50 mm / s
Filling speed. 50 mm / s
Type of sticking to the table: Border (Brim)
Manufacturer’s recommended temperature settings for printing:
Head temperature. 220-240 ° С
Table temperature. 100.120 ° С
Preparing for 3D printing
Before starting work, be sure to clean the glass surface from adhesive and dirt. Apply PVA D3 glue in a continuous thin layer, trying to distribute the glue evenly over the entire surface of the part of the table on which the model will be printed.
We are waiting for the glue to dry.
We heat the table of the Epo3d 3D printer to 40 ° C, and the print head to 260 ° C and start printing. We print the first layer at a low speed of 10. 20 mm / s. When printing the first layers, set a higher temperature. This mode will ensure good adhesion of the layers to each other and to the glass. Further, it lowers the temperature to 245 ° C. It is this temperature that we determined as optimal after examining the temperature column.
Thus, a cooled lower part of the model is created, which does not allow the printed sample to deform.
When the printer switches to printing a gear with a smaller diameter, to prevent layer displacement, turn on the airflow by about 20% and reduce the print speed.
Having finished printing all four samples from Nylon material, we make a comparison and draw conclusions.
Real polyamide color with slight yellow tint. Layers not quite flat, but not delaminated. When removing “Brim” there was a delamination between layers 2 and 3 in one area. The plastic has partially come off the table. Easily removable with a knife.
Natural translucent color. The layers lay well without delamination. It was not possible to remove the border with my hands, I had to cut it off with a knife. Only the teeth have come off the glass platform. Removable from the platform easily.
The color is the same as in Nylon. The model was printed neatly and without delamination. The first layer adhered well to the platform, without deformation. However, due to the unevenly applied adhesive, a small area does not adhere well enough. However, this does not apply to the properties of the Nylon material, but speaks of the need for careful and thorough preparation for 3D printing.
Same characteristics as Nylon 1%, no differences visible. The model is printed with a liner (raft).
From the experiment, we conclude that all four varieties of Nylon plastic have shown themselves to be good as materials for 3D printing.
All types of plastic Nylon DO NOT like high speed printing.
The most important difference between Nylon1% and 2.5% is that there was NO peeling from the table.
The 3D printing method used for the test has generally provided satisfactory results and may be the mainstay for further experimentation.
A Practical Guide to 3D Printing Gears
This material is a general guide to the design and printing of plastic gears on a layered 3D printer.
The gear light switch is a clever example of what you can design yourself after reading this article.
Optimal materials for plastic gears
What is the best material? The short answer in terms of the quality of the finished gears is as follows:
Nylon (PA) PETG PLA ABS
Nylon filament (PA-6, PA-12 Nylon) is incredibly strong, durable and multifunctional material for 3D printing. Low coefficient of friction, reliable adhesion of layers and high melting point makes it an excellent material for 3D printing gears. The disadvantages of nylon include its tendency to absorb moisture and the difficulty of printing with this filament.
PETG (Polyethylene terephthalate glycol) is also a tough and durable material, a big plus is its high caking rate of layers, sticks well to the table.
Compared to ABS, PLA has good stiffness and excellent wear resistance, making it a favorite if temperature permits. The low temperature threshold at which the PLA part begins to distort makes ABS the best choice when it comes to 75 degrees Celsius (ABS starts to melt at 105).
By the way, PLA’s biodegradability is an overrated property. Yes, PLA is biodegradable. But this cannot be noticeable to the end user. Biodegradability. not at all that water solubility. Biodegradable plastic requires special composting devices in a controlled environment.
Gear Breaker Printing and Assembly Instructions
3D printer owners can download STL files for free
- Please note the “Personal Use Only” license, ie. The result cannot be distributed, sold, changed, etc.
- When assembled, the structure is 15.87 cm in diameter. Largest printed part. 14.92 cm in diameter
Print all parts With a minimum of 3 perimeters on all sides and bottom, 15% coverage. We recommend a layer thickness of no more than 0.3 mm. Any material will work. as long as it is possible to avoid distortions of parts, which will render the device unusable.
Handle part is the only one that needs support.
Assembly instructions (read at getting started)
- Use a blade to clean the teeth of the gears so that they fit well, then install them on the plate with the same direction of rotation in which they were printed (the pin of the central gear is the case, the hook is driven. from the top in the center).
- Fix the main gear, hit the pins in the holes.
- Apply a little dry glue (a glue stick will work well) to the tip of the lever and position the lever on the side it aligns with the pins. The glue is needed to secure the lever to the pins. The lever also presses the main gear to the structure.
- Heat and soften the clamps. This is enough to reveal them. Align the edges of the clamps with the holes on the back of the plate and crimp the gears in a circle. (The holes on the back of the plate may need to be cleaned. a knife will help, it all depends on how good your printer is). Press down on the clamps until they set. This ensures that everything will hold on securely.
Special advantages of layer-by-layer printing and examples of using gears
So, what is the advantage of 3D printing gears over traditional methods of making them, and how durable the gears are??
Printed plastic gears are cheap, fast, and easy to get customized results. Complex gears and 3D variations print seamlessly. The prototyping and creation process is fast and clean. Most importantly, 3D printers are widespread enough that a set of STL files from the Internet can provide thousands of people.
Of course, printing gears with common plastic is a trade-off in surface quality and durability when compared to molded or machined plastic gears. But if designed correctly, printed gears can be quite an effective and reasonable option, and for some solutions ideal.
Most work applications look like a gearbox, typically for small electric motors, handles, and winding keys. This is because electric motors work great at high speeds, but they have problems with a sharp drop in speed, and it is problematic to do without a gear transmission in this case. Here are some examples:
Specific problems of layer-by-layer printing
- Printed gears usually require a little post-processing before implementation. Be prepared for “wormholes” and the fact that the teeth will need to be cut with a blade.
Reducing the diameter of the center hole is a very common problem, even on expensive printers. This is the result of many factors. This is partly the thermal contraction of the cooling plastic, partly because the holes are designed in the form of polygons with a large number of corners, which contract around the perimeter of the hole. (Always export high segment gear STL files).
Slicers also contribute as some of THESE programs can select different points to go around the holes. If the inner edge of the hole will draw the inner edge of the extruded plastic, then the actual diameter of the hole will have a slight shrinkage, and in order to insert something into this hole, a certain effort may be required. So the slicer can deliberately make the holes smaller.
In addition, any Layer Discrepancy or Discrepancy in the width of the intended and actual extrusion can have a rather noticeable effect, “sealing” the hole. You can deal with this, for example, Modeling holes with a diameter of about 0.005 cm larger. For similar reasons, and so that the printed gears fit next to each other and can work, it is recommended to leave a gap between the teeth of about 0.4 mm in the model. This is some compromise, but the printed gears will NOT get stuck.
Another common problem is to get a solid fill, which is quite difficult for small gears. Gaps between small teeth are quite common, even if the Slicers are set to 100% filling.
Some programs successfully cope with this in automatic mode, but manually solve this problem by increasing the overlap of layers. This problem is well documented on RichRap, and the blog posts various solutions.
Thin-walled parts are brittle, overhanging parts need supports, the strength of the part is much lower along the Z axis. The settings recommended for printing gears do not differ from the usual ones. Based on the tests already carried out, a rectangular filling and at least 3 perimeters can be recommended. It is also advisable to print as thin as possible. as much as the equipment and patience allow, because then the teeth are smoother.
The most common causes of printed gear failure
- Grinding teeth (from prolonged use, see step 10 for lubrication).
- Broken teeth (under high loads).
- Problems pushing on here (see Step 7 about pushing).
- Breakage of the body or spokes (these are rare breakages, which usually occur if the gears are poorly printed, with insufficient filling, for example, or are designed with too thin spokes).
The importance of the involute
Bad way of making gears
It is quite common in amateur communities to find incorrectly designed gears. modeling gears is not so simple. As you might guess, poorly designed gears adhere poorly, have excessive friction, pressure, recoil, and uneven rotational speed.
An involute (involute) is a certain kind of optimal curve described along a certain contour. In the involute technique, circles are used as a tooth profile for gear wheels. This is done so that the rotational speed and the angle of engagement remain unchanged. A well-designed set of gears should transmit motion exclusively through rotation, with minimal slippage.
Modeling an involute gear from scratch is a tedious task, so it makes sense to look for templates before tackling it. Links to some of them will be given below.
Subtleties of tooth modeling. Optimal number of teeth
Think about this: If you want a 2: 1 gear ratio for a linear machine, how many teeth should each gear have? Which is better. 30 and 60, 15 and 30 or 8 and 17?
Each of THESE ratios will give the same result, but the set of gears in each case will be very different when printed.
teeth results in a higher coefficient of traction (number of teeth engaged simultaneously) and provides smoother rotation. The increase in the number of teeth leads to the fact that each of them must be smaller. to fit the same diameter. Smaller teeth are more fragile and harder to print accurately.
On the other hand, reducing the number of teeth gives more volume for increased strength.
Printing small gears on a 3D printer is like painting thin lines with a thick brush in a coloring book. (This is 100% dependent on the diameter of the nozzle and the horizontal resolution of the printer. The vertical resolution does not play a role in the minimum size limitation).
If you want to test your printer in printing small gears, you can use this STL:
The printer we tested performed everything at the highest level, but with a diameter of about half an inch, the teeth began to look somehow suspicious.
The advice is to make the teeth as large as possible, while avoiding the warning from the program in too few of them, as well as avoiding Intersection.
There is one more point that is required Pay attention when choosing the number of teeth: prime numbers and factorization.
The numbers 15 and 30 are both divisible by 15, so with so many teeth on the two gears, the same teeth will constantly meet each other, forming points of wear.
A more correct solution is 15 and 31. (This is the answer to the question at the beginning of the section).
In this case, the proportion is NOT respected, but uniform wear of a pair of gears is ensured. Dust and dirt will be distributed evenly throughout the gear, wear too.
Experience shows that it is best if the ratio of the number of teeth of the two gears is in the range from about 0.2 to 5.If you need a larger gear ratio, it is better to add additional gears to the system, otherwise you can get a mechanical monster.
Few teeth is how many?
Such information can be found in any Mechanic’s Handbook. 13 is the minimum recommendation for gears with a pressure angle of 20 degrees, 9. Recommended for a minimum of 25 degrees.
A smaller number of teeth is undesirable, because they will intersect, which will weaken the teeth themselves, and during the printing process you will have to solve the problem of overlap.
Subtleties of tooth modeling. Pressure Angle, and How to Make Strong Prongs
Pressure angle 15, pressure angle 35
Pressure angle? Why do I need to know this?
This is the angle between the normal to the tooth surface and the diameter of the circle. Teeth with a higher pressure angle (more triangular) are stronger, but less adhered. They are easier to print, but in operation they create a high radial load on the carrier, they make more noise and are prone to kickback and slippage.
For 3D printing, 25 degrees is a good option, which provides smooth and efficient transmission in palm-sized gears.
What else can you do to strengthen teeth?
Just making the gear thicker will obviously strengthen the teeth as well. Doubling the thickness gives a doubling of strength. A good general rule of thumb is that the thickness should be three to five times the pitch of the gear.
The strength of a gear tooth can be roughly estimated when viewed as a small cantilever beam. With this approach, it is clear that the addition of an overlapping solid wall to reduce the unsupported area significantly strengthens the strength of the gear teeth. Depending on the application, this calculation technique can also be used to reduce the number of points of engagement.
Attachment methods here
Recessed Hexagon (hexagon) fixing screw in plane
Gears with a wedge on the axis
Tight nozzle on here with a notch. This simplest method is NOT too common. Here you need to be careful with the skewed plastic, which over time will worsen the transmission of torque. This design is also non-separable.
Here is the locking screw in the plane of the gear. The locking screw passes through the gear and abuts against a flat area on the axle. The set screw is usually guided directly into the gear body or through a recessed nut through a square hole. Each method has its own risks.
If you direct the screw directly, the fragile plastic thread can be ripped off. The sunken nut method solves this problem, but if you are not careful and apply too much force when fastening, the gear body may break. Make the gear thicker!
Adding Special Screw-in Thermal Spacers like here will significantly improve the strength of the nozzle on.
Recessed Hex. Hexagonal insert that contains a hexagonal nut for a hexagonal screw. Enough continuous layers should be printed around the hexagon so that the screw has something to hold onto. In this case, it is also useful to use a locking screw, especially when it comes to high revs.
Wedge is rarely found in the world of amateur 3D printing.
This is how it is integrated with the nut. This solution resists torsional loads well. It is, however, very difficult to achieve on a printer, because the gears have to be printed perpendicular to the table surface, and any axes with such a solution have a weak point along the Z axis, which manifests itself under high loads.
Some types of gears
External and internal spur gears, parallel helical (helical), double helical, rack, bevel, screw, flat-top, worm
Spiral gear wheel (herringbone). It can usually be seen in printer extruders, which are difficult to work with but have their own advantages. They are good for high grip, self-centering and self-leveling. (Self-leveling infuriates, because it affects the operation of the entire structure). This type of gear is also easy to make with common equipment like hobby printers. 3D printing knows much simpler methods.
Worm gear. Easy to model, there is a great temptation to use it. It should be noted that the gear ratio of such a system is equal to the number of gear teeth divided by the number of worm openings. (It is necessary to look from the end of the worm and count the number of incipient spirals. In most cases, it turns out from 1 to 3).
Rack gear. Converts rotary motion to linear motion and vice versa. Here it is not a question of rotation, but of the distance that the rack travels with each turn of the gear shaft. It is very easy to calculate the density of the teeth here: you just need to multiply their density on the rack by pi and by the diameter of the gear. (Or multiply the number of teeth on the rack by the density of the teeth on the gear).
Lubricating 3D Printed Gears
If the device operates at low loads at low speeds and frequencies, there is no need to worry about lubricating the plastic gears. But if the loads are high, then you can try to extend the life, lubricate the gears and reduce friction and wear. In any case, all gear functions are more efficient with lubrication and the gears themselves last longer.
For objects such as the gears of a 3D printer’s extruder, a heavy-duty lubricant can be recommended. For this, lithol, PTFE or silicone-based lubricants are perfect. Apply lubricant, lightly wipe the part with toilet paper, a clean paper towel or a non-dusty cloth, evenly distribute the lubricant, turned the gears several times.
Any lubricant is better than none, but you need to make sure that it is chemically compatible with this plastic. And you should always remember that WD-40 grease sucks. Although she cleans decently.
Gear making tools
High quality gears can be made with free software alone. That is, there are paid programs for highly optimized and perfect gear connections, with finely tuned parameters and optimal performance, but they are not looking for good and good. You just need to make sure that gears made with the same tool are used in the same mechanism so that the joints mesh as needed. Gears are best modeled in pairs.
Option 1. Find an existing gear model, modify or Scale it to fit your needs. Here is a list of databases where you can find ready-made gear models.
- Mcmaster Carr: Extensive array of 3D models, proven solutions
- Grabcad: a giant database of user-submitted models
- 3dcontentcentral database of user-submitted models
- Misumi: 3D models of small mechanical parts
- Stock Drive Products: 3D models of many types of gears
Option 2. Design Gears from Scratch Using Free Online Gear Generation Templates
If you cannot get a suitable part, copy the existing models, the next option to create your own solution would be to use an involute gear pattern generator. Fortunately, this is where a lot of cool tools come in.
- Here is a selection of useful gear models for customization on Thingiverse.
- Matthias Wandel’s classic. gear generator software.
- Online STL File Creator. create STL files easily and easily.
- Geargenerator.com generates SVG files of spur gears (These files can be converted to imported DXF files here. However, some programs, such as Blender, can import SVGs directly, without dancing with tambourines).
- https://inkscape.org/ru/ is a free vector graphics program with an integrated gear generator. A decent guide to making gears in Inkscape is here and here too.
STL file editors
Most gear pattern generators produce STL files, which can be annoying if you need features the generator does NOT offer. STL files are PDFs of the 3D world, they are sophisticatedly difficult to edit, however editing is possible.
Tinkercad. A good basic browser-based CAD program, simple and quick to learn, one of the few 3D modeling programs that can modify STL files. Www.Tinkercad.com
Meshmixer. Good program for scaling original shapes. http://meshmixer.com/
No FDM 3D printing
Most people, even diehard hobbyists, do not have direct access to other 3D printing technologies for making gears. Meanwhile, such services exist and can help.
SLA is a great technology for professional gear prototyping. The layers to be printed are NOT visible and very fine detail can be produced as a result of the process. On the other hand, the parts are expensive and somewhat fragile. If you use this process to prototype a future cast model, you will NOT have problems retrieving it. Make the part solid, otherwise it will certainly break!
SLS is a very precise process that produces durable parts. The technology does not require props for overhanging structures. You can create complex and detailed products, preferably with walls up to a quarter inch thick. The print layers are also nearly invisible. BUT, a rough surface (because the technology is based on powder printing) is extremely prone to wear. Requires a very heavy duty lubricant and many do NOT recommend SLS gears at all for durable applications.
Binderjet technology is good for detailed and accurate multicolor decorative or non-structural details. Good for crazy colored parts, but very fragile and grainy, so this is not what is required for functional gears.
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