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Who are they, these people, in whom is the image of the Orthodox cross infuriating? Does the sight of a monastic cowl or a priestly robe give rise to evil irony? Does the sight of a monastery wall or an Easter procession make you curse and sprinkle poisonous saliva? Where did this “idle and crafty” spirit come from? Why attacks on Russian monasteries, on church altars, on sacred texts, in which divine wisdom for a thousand years sanctifies the spirit of the people, shows them the way to light, justice and love have become more frequent?
St. Nicholas Chernoostrovsky Monastery near Maloyaroslavets. A glorious place for every Russian heart. Here in 1812 there were battles with the French, and Kutuzov’s army did not let the enemy enter the loaf Kaluga road, but drove him back to Europe along the charred, bukhankan Smolensk road, where Napoleon ingloriously destroyed his army and, frostbitten, rushed off to Paris. The monastery itself, with its white temples, white stone walls, was erected in Honor of a delightful Russian victory. Having survived the devastation and desolation, by the efforts of the nuns, it was transformed into a blooming place, drowning in roses in summer, and shining in the winter among the blue Russian forests and glittering ice rivers. One hundred and twenty nuns found their consolation in the monastery in eternal labors and prayers, they gather many pilgrims and pilgrims. Children who lost their home in the world, who were abandoned by their parents, who witnessed terrible family scenes, who died in the midst of a cruel world, found their monastery home in the orphanage. Here, in the monastery, they are surrounded by care, love, and I could not look at these wonderful faces without tears, when the children gave a concert, played a naive children’s play, the same one with which they traveled around a dozen European countries, evoking admiration and tenderness among compassionate Europeans And this monastery is being severely attacked: slander in the press, on the Internet, some kind of book in which a rebellious girl moving from monastery to monastery, changing her religious beliefs, blasphemes against the monastery What are they trying to achieve, these detractors and desecrators? Why are they throwing poison into the well of holy water? Why smear with soot the snow-white monastery walls?
And the second monastery is Bogolyubsky, which is on the outskirts of Vladimir. What beauty, power, greatness, what magnificent blue domes with golden crosses! How far the monastic bells fly into endless fields, into the bends of rivers. The monastery stood in the way along which Russia moved from Kiev to Vladimir and further to Moscow. To Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky, who was transferring the covenants from one Russian kingdom to another, the Mother of God appeared on these steep slopes. And he, illuminated by this miracle, ordered to paint an icon of the Theotokos the God-loving. This monastery, built from the ashes, lifted up into the sky with its crosses by the labors of Russian women nuns, is precious to the believing Russian heart. And for me, in my most bitter, dashing moments, he opened his gates, healed my spiritual ailment.
Who needs to desecrate the shrines? Who are they, these businessmen, these enterprising gold-lovers, who decided to build a condom factory right outside the walls of the monastery? What if they were going to build such a plant near the walls of the Kremlin or Friday mosque, or near the main synagogue? Would it really be built? Is there really no place among the empty lands, unkempt villages, except for this monastery, where these rubber craftsmen could establish their institution? And then there would be no protesting pilgrims, wailing nuns, sobbing parishioners who are afraid to think that the word “Bogolyubovo” will appear on the labels of the ill-fated products.
Orthodox monasteries are destroyed and desecrated in Syria by mad Islamists. Monastic shrines and churches are being destroyed in Kosovo by the Albanian invaders. Hasn’t this evil energy reached the Russian monasteries? What is the nature of evil, which suddenly and in the 21st century revealed itself at the monastery fences. after all the persecutions and vilifications that the church was subjected to in the 20th century?
Monasteries in Russia are special places: on the hills, on steep slopes, surrounded by forests, on the banks of rivers, along highways. where mysterious secret places, where the sky connects with the earth, where invisible light guides combine the heavenly Tabor light with earthly human life. And this light penetrates into worldly dwellings, into garrisons, into universities, into prison, into the thoughts and motives of people, protecting them from evil, filling them with light. Monks and nuns create this light guide with their endless day and night prayers. They do not allow the heavenly radiance to fade, which flashes on church crosses and makes a loving and believing heart rejoice. Altars and priests praying in front of them exude an invisible veil that envelops Russia like the veil of the Mother of God, through which the forces of evil do not penetrate into Russia, the forces that wish us destruction.
Russian weapons, warships, planes and tanks preserve our earthly borders. And monasteries and churches, even the smallest ones, lost among the endless Russian spaces, are spiritual weapons with which Russia repels evil. In all ages, in the most terrible times, fleeing from invasions, fires, persecutions, Russian people converged, fled to monasteries, hid from massacres, wrote books, preserved patristic traditions. Today our monasteries are a refuge for Russianness. Here are preserved the Orthodox ideas about life and death, about spiritual heroism and immortality, the memory of our righteous men, commanders. Here they pray for the Russian army, for Russian heroes, those who are fighting far from Russia today, and those unknown, not yet buried, whose bones lie in mossy swamps and impenetrable forests.
Today the Orthodox Church with its monasteries and parishes is a growing force that is fighting against spiritual filth, human darkness, with the rich, who boast of their riches in the face of the disadvantaged. Calls for honest service of soulless officials and political cunning, gives guidance to artists and writers, explaining the deep nature of their inspiration.
Today the church serves the growth and strengthening of our Russian state, is one of its pillars. Gathers around him representatives of other religions. Combines our multilingual homeland into a symphonic sovereign unity. That is why there are attacks, therefore, there is poison in the wells, therefore, demoniac laughter and blasphemy. And today, as well as hundreds of years ago, invisible warfare continues. And today the struggle between good and evil continues. And today, as in ancient times, enemies besieging us are climbing the monastery walls. The Church does not fight with the sword, but with the spirit, prayer and good deed.
The Monastic Life. Timelines.tv History of Britain A04
Sisters, my dear ones, who live in the Chernoostrovsky monastery and in the beloved Bogolyubov, with you all believing Orthodox Russia. You are being persecuted, which means that you are right before Christ. And who, if not you, know that Christ is not mocked. Russia cannot be mocked. Amen.
The house you live in (national types of dwellings)
One hundred, five hundred, a thousand? Tens of thousands of years, and maybe more. I did not make a reservation: it is our house in which we live, tens of thousands of years. Do not think that our modern homes are so different from the homes of ancient people. As, you say, our house was built ten years ago and in it. Aha! You are already starting to count by bending your fingers: garbage chute, gas pipeline, heating, electricity, plumbing. I also remember all this. By the way, the bath was already in the ancient Pompeian houses, excavated from the ashes of Vesuvius. And the plumbing. Remember Mayakovsky’s poems:
how the water supply system entered our days, worked by the slaves of Rome.
However, if the ancient Romans did not have a bath and running water, I would still not take my words back. After all, today’s house, no matter how modern it was, like a thousand years ago, must protect its inhabitants from cold and heat, from wind, rain or snow. People live everywhere. in the snowy north, and in the sultry south, and in the steppe expanses, and among forests, and in the mountains, and in the desert, and even on the water. The dwellings that people have built for centuries, adapting to a particular climate, to one or another customs, needs, mean a lot for modern architecture. It is extremely interesting to know what kind of dwellings there were and how they were arranged. But not just interesting. It is also very necessary. over, it is absolutely necessary.
House of the Eskimo. A small snow dome among endless snows. Winter brought cold. Winter and helps to protect against them.
Smooth snow surface. The sky and the ground, covered with snow, are the same silvery gray. the line of the horizon melted into sparkling snow dust. Soon, in a week or two, the low sun will disappear, as if it will melt in the snowy twilight. The many months polar night will come. The man rolled a snowball. I cut it on four sides, and it turned out to be a large snow brick. One. Other. The third. Many of these bricks are already lying on a flat area cleared of snow. And so a man begins to build a house out of these snow bricks. There is a proverb: “A house does not stand without corners.” So, this snow house is built without corners. it is round. Like half a ball. From a distance it looks very much like an egg half buried in the ground. The man looked around his house outside, picked up a bowl of seal fat and a wick floating in it, bent down and went inside the house. He put this lamp of his on the snowy floor and waited. The seal fat crackles, the faint light will fly up higher, then almost completely disappear. But then the lamp flared up. The flame burns steadily on the wick. The air in the round snow house gradually heats up. The snow on the walls is melting. Snow bricks float. As if they are firmly growing together in front of our eyes. Now it is only necessary to remove the lamp for a while, and the walls inside the house will grab a strong ice crust. The house is ready. Since ancient times, the Eskimos built such snowy dwellings in the Far North. They were called igloo.
To cool the tea, it is poured into a saucer. Why? Because the surface of the water is greater in a wide saucer than in a narrow glass. And the larger the surface of the water, the faster the heat leaves it. The smaller the surface of the walls of the house, the more heat will be stored inside, in the rooms. But the ball (this is known from geometry) of all geometric figures has the smallest surface. This is why the Eskimos built round houses! Although, of course, they did not know geometry then. But many years of experience helped them. Isn’t it true that the polar explorers ‘house is very similar to the Eskimos’ snow igloo?
Today, the architect is not going to build from snow. he has at his disposal such materials as reinforced concrete, plastic, metal. But the shape of the northern house of the Eskimos, thought out to the details, can be used. See this round subarctic polar expedition home, built by renowned Swedish architect Ralph Erskin. Does it remind you of an ancient Eskimo dwelling?
A piece of ancient Bukhara. Along the narrow street there are deaf adobe walls with rare indentations of doors.
“Oasis”. An amazing word. It is impossible to pronounce it with a casual tongue twister. That long “o” in front gives the voice a touch of admiration and even reverence. And the word “Asia” is also heard in it. And coolness blows from him. Maybe it all seems to me, because I know: an oasis is a patch of green, moist land among the immense yellow sands of the desert. For desert dwellers, an oasis is life. And people build their houses here. When building a house in the desert, a person always tried to fence off a piece of an oasis among the dry sands. Save an oasis inside the house. But how can you do this? Wood in the kitchen? Lake in the bedroom?. This cannot be!. you say. However, this is exactly what a Central Asian dwelling looks like. Both a green tree and a small reservoir are built up, surrounded by blank adobe walls. The house seems to embrace this little green courtyard. But it is only called a courtyard. In fact, this is the real living quarters, another room in the house. With dense shade under a spreading plane tree and a damp breeze from a small pool. After all, people try to spend most of the day and all night not in stuffy, closed rooms, but in the air, in an “open-air room.” Here they receive guests, drink green transparent tea, and fry delicious lamb meat, and sleep. And outside in the walls of the house there are no windows, only a door. The walls of the house reliably protect a small oasis from sultry, dry winds, yellow from sand dust.
The old city in Central Asia consisted of small residential quarters. mahalla. Mahalla is both adobe houses stuck to each other, and crooked streets, so narrow that the shadow of the house on one side of it falls on the wall of the house opposite, and a small market square. In such makhallas they lived amicably, almost as a community. Everyone knew the respectable gray-bearded old men sitting in a row under a canopy in the market square by name. They politely greeted them, adding a respectful “ata”, that is, “old man”, “father”:. Hello, Dadakhon-ata! And the old people nodded their heads favorably. And women, having climbed onto a flat roof, echoed with neighbors from nearby houses. Mahallas are somewhat similar to modern neighborhoods with their pedestrian paths and a small shopping center. The old districts of Tashkent were destroyed by an earthquake. But the earthquake, of course, could not destroy the good-neighborly customs, the way of life of the friendly Uzbek people. And the architects decided to try to create an area like a mahalla. And then there were reinforced concrete houses with a pool and garden in the courtyard, with a flat roof. One family lived in each such house. So the idea of an adobe dwelling in Central Asia was embodied in a modern house.
The steppe is immense. There are many pastures. Why would herds graze in one place? Here we ate the grass, you can move on. So people roamed behind herds of horses, behind fat herds. But the animals will not eat the juicy grass in one day, people will have to live in one place for more than one day. You need to build a dwelling. They drove high poles into the ground. We translated them with rods. As if a basket turned upside down stands in the steppe. The starry sky shines through the bars. But then they covered this wicker frame with dense sheets of felt, and it turned out to be a reliable, warm house. a yurt. And when it is necessary to move to another place, they will quickly disassemble the light yurt, put the poles and felt in the wagon, and roll the mobile home along the steppe roads.
Winter diligently hides traces of recent summer under the snow. both dry twisted leaves, and grass that did not have time to dry out, and cast heads of acorns, and strawberry meadows, and hillocks with a soft bed of moss. But the sky will clear up, turn blue, a sunbeam will slide along the trunks of pines, lighten them with orange spots, and then a fleeting memory of hot summer days will flicker. And the summer was over long ago. The bright plank walls of the holiday camps are covered in frost. An icy wind twirls the snow on the paths, which were spanked over the summer by bare feet and sandals. Inhabitants of the tent camp migrated from the forest to the city, to their “winter” apartments, and tents were gathered like yurts. They pulled the stakes and pegs out of the ground, neatly folded the canvas panels. wait, tent, for a distant summer! Here’s how! It turns out that the tent is not such a distant relative of the nomadic yurt. Today, both geologists and polar explorers often live in collapsible mobile houses. And they also have a lot in common with a light “collapsible” yurt.
The grass near the log wall has withered. Soon the Siberian winter will whirl blizzards. But they are not scary to the inhabitants of this house: the entire courtyard, the entire household are covered under one roof.
I was always amazed at how cleverly and firmly an ordinary Russian hut works. And what apt name. log house. A house felled with an ordinary ax. In every haunch of the log, in every notch, it was as if a precise, confident swing of a sharp ax was frozen. And tightly folded. a crown to a crown. the walls, and an even strip of moss or tow between the logs, and smooth round ends of the logs. all this is firm, not a single tiny draft will slip into the house. This is especially felt in the northern hut. Here, not only the house is protected from frost, snow, wind. But the courtyard, the barn, and the stable where the livestock live. everything merged with the house, under one roof. And in the north of the Czech Republic there are even “courtyards-streets”, in which ten to fifteen houses are attached at once under one roof. Here, both severe frost and snowstorm do not care: the people of the whole village took refuge under one roof.
The old Estonian house seemed to consist of one roof. On slippery straw from the steep slopes of the roof, rain jets quickly slide down.
These are the different houses that different peoples on earth build for themselves. But that’s not all. Houses on rafts and even boats. Like a swallow’s nest, the pueblo. the dwellings of the South American Indians. cling to the rock. And the magnificent proud tower houses of the Georgian village in Svaneti. The ancient Georgian dwelling. darbazi. was designed so that light entered it through a hole in the roof. A dome was made from logs laid one by one in an octahedron, the kick can be seen in the figure. And next to it is the dome of a modern building, but it was made according to the principle of the Georgian darbazi. It is very difficult to enumerate everything that modern architecture gives to a folk dwelling. Architects today are closely studying the experience that was embodied in such unusual and sometimes simply exotic forms of folk dwellings.
Strange gentleman and ribbons on the doors
Bernard Shaw has a wonderful episode in his play Pygmalion. A conversation is struck up between casual interlocutors, sheltered from the rain. And one respectable gentleman amazes everyone with the fact that he can tell almost everyone’s biography: where he comes from, what suburb of London he lived in, what he does. At first everyone was surprised, then they were indignant, and then they were completely angry at this too much knowledgeable person. Someone shouted that it might be a spy and he was watching everyone. But then it turns out that the gentleman is a language specialist, a linguist. By the shades of speech, by the dialect, by the characteristic words, he determines the occupation of a person and his place of birth. This is not surprising. We can easily determine the homeland of a person who speaks Russian, not only if he is Ukrainian or Georgian, but also if he is a “okay” native of Vologda or “akaye” Muscovite. The same thing happens in architecture. Travel to Uzbekistan, Georgia, the Baltics, and you will see how the peculiarities of art, everyday life, national traditions are manifested in the architecture of modern buildings. Be it an intricate azure-green Uzbek ornament. Or Armenian pink tuff, which is used to get off the houses in Yerevan. Or the famous Georgian chasing on the walls of houses. Or the characteristic roof of an Estonian house with overhangs so large that it almost covers the walls. Many are probably familiar with the chagrin that modern buildings are too similar. There were even cases when mothers tied colorful ribbons at the entrances to their houses so that the children would not get lost. But twin houses exist not only in one neighborhood or even city. There is a danger that architecture in all countries will become the same. Architects began to talk about a certain “international” style. But every nation has its own history, and its own art, and its own character. And the architecture of different nations, of course, cannot be the same. This is why architects are studying the experience that has been embodied in the unusual forms of folk dwellings.
Dwellings of nomadic peoples
The nomadic way of life has formed a special type of dwellings of the peoples of the world who do not live settled. Here are examples of some of them.
This is a typical type of structure among nomads. It continues to be a traditional home in Turkmenistan, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Altai.
It is a domed dwelling covered with skins or felt. It is based on large poles, which are installed in the form of lattices. There is always a hole on the roof of the dome for smoke to escape from the hearth. The dome shape gives it maximum stability, and the felt maintains its constant microclimate inside the room, not allowing heat or frost to penetrate there.
In the center of the building there is a hearth, stones for which they always carry with them. The floor is covered with skins or planks.
The dwelling can be assembled or disassembled in 2 hours
The Kazakhs call the marching yurt abylaysha. They were used in military campaigns under the Kazakh khan Abylai, hence the name.
This is a gypsy wagon, in fact. it is a one-room house that is mounted on wheels. There is a door, windows, oven, bed, linen boxes. Below the wagon there is a luggage compartment and even a chicken coop. The cart is very light, so only one horse could handle it. Vardo became widespread at the end of the 19th century.
This is the tent of the Bedouins (Arab nomads). The frame consists of long poles intertwined with each other, it was covered with a fabric that was woven from camel hair, it was very dense and did not let moisture through during the rain. The room was divided into male and female parts, each of which had its own hearth.
Dwellings of the peoples of Europe
The most famous dwellings of European peoples are: trullo, paljaso, bordey, vezha, konak, kulla, chalet. Many of them still exist.
This is a type of dwelling for the peoples of central and southern Italy. They were created by dry masonry, that is, the stones were laid without cement or clay. And if you pull out one stone, the structure collapsed. This type of structure was due to the fact that it was forbidden to build dwellings in these areas, and if inspectors came, the structure could easily be destroyed.
Trullo were one-room apartments with two windows. The roof of the building was tapered.
These dwellings are characteristic of the peoples living in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. They were built in the highlands of Spain. These were round structures with a cone-shaped roof. The top of the roof was covered with thatch or reed. The exit was always on the east side, the building had no windows.
This is a semi-dugout of the peoples of Moldova and Romania, which was covered with a thick layer of reed or straw. This is the oldest type of dwelling in this part of the continent.
Dwelling of the Irish, which looks like a domed hut built of stone. The masonry was used dry, without any solutions. The windows looked like narrow slits. Basically, such dwellings were built by monks who led an ascetic lifestyle.
This is the traditional home of the Sami (the Finno-Ugric people of northern Europe). The structure was made of logs in the form of a pyramid, at which a smoke hole was left. A stone hearth was built in the center of the tower, and the floor was covered with reindeer skins. Nearby, a shed was built on pillars, which was called nili.
Two-storey stone house built in Romania, angle grinder, Yugoslavia. This building in the plan resembles the Russian letter G, it was covered with a tiled roof. The house had a huge number of rooms, so there was no need for outbuildings with such houses.
It is a fortified tower built of stone with small windows. They can be found in Albania, the Caucasus, Sardinia, Ireland, Corsica.
This is a rural house in the Alps. It is distinguished by protruding eaves, wooden walls, the lower part of which was plastered and lined with stone.
Dwellings of the peoples of Ukraine
The most historically valuable and famous dwellings of the peoples of Ukraine are: a hut, a Transcarpathian kolyba, a hut. Many of them still exist.
This is an old traditional dwelling of Ukraine, unlike the hut, it was intended for living in areas with a mild and warm climate. It was built from a wooden frame, the walls consisted of thin branches, outside they were smeared with white clay, and inside with a solution of clay mixed with reeds and straw. The roof consisted of reeds or straw. The hut house did not have a foundation and was not protected from moisture in any way, but served its owners for 100 or more years.
In the mountainous regions of the Carpathians, shepherds and lumberjacks built temporary summer dwellings, which were called “kolyba”. This is a log cabin with no windows. The roof was gable and covered with flat chips. Wooden loungers and shelves for things were installed along the walls inside. There was a hearth in the middle of the dwelling.
This is a traditional type of dwelling among Belarusians, Ukrainians, southern Russian peoples and Poles. The roof was hipped, made of reeds or straw. The walls were built of half-timbers, coated with a mixture of horse manure and clay. The hut was whitewashed both outside and inside. There were shutters on the windows. The house was surrounded by a block (a wide bench filled with clay). The hut was divided into 2 parts, divided by an entrance hall: residential and utility.
Dwellings of the peoples of the north
The conditions of the harsh northern climate influenced the features of the national structures of the peoples who lived in these conditions. The most famous dwellings of the northern peoples are the booth, chum, igloo and yaranga. They are still relevant and fully meet the requirements of the completely difficult conditions of the north.
This dwelling is remarkably adapted to the harsh climatic conditions and the nomadic way of life. They are inhabited by peoples who are mainly engaged in reindeer husbandry: the Nenets, Komi, Entsy, Khanty. Many believe that the Chukchi also live in a chum, but this is a delusion, they build yarangas.
Chum is a tent in the form of a cone, which is formed by high poles. This type of structure is more resistant to gusts of wind, and the cone shape of the walls allows snow to slide over their surface in winter and not accumulate.
They are covered with burlap in summer and animal skins in winter. The entrance to the chum is hung with sackcloth. So that neither snow nor wind falls under the lower edge of the structure, snow is raked outside to the base of its walls.
‘I took an internship at a monastery’. BBC News
In the center of it, a hearth is always burning, which is used to heat the room and prepare food. The temperature in the room is about 15 to 20 ºС. Animal skins are laid on the floor. Pillows, feather beds and blankets are sewn from sheep skins.
The chum is traditionally installed by all family members, from small to large.
Traditional dwelling of the Yakuts. a booth, it is a rectangular structure made of logs with a sloping roof. It was built quite easily: they took the main logs and set them vertically, but at an angle, and then attached many other smaller diameter logs. After the wall was smeared with clay. The roof was first covered with bark, and a layer of earth was poured on top of it.
Trampled sand served as the floor inside the dwelling, the temperature of which never dropped below 5 ºС.
The walls consisted of a huge number of windows; before the onset of severe frosts, they were covered with ice, and in summer. mica.
The hearth was always located to the right of the entrance, it was smeared with clay. Everyone slept on bunks, which were set to the right of the hearth for men and to the left. for women.
This is the housing of the Eskimos, who did not live very well, unlike the Chukchi, so they did not have the opportunity and materials to build a full-fledged dwelling. They built their houses from snow or ice blocks. The structure was domed.
The main feature of the igloo device was that the entrance had to be below floor level. This was done so that oxygen entered the dwelling and carbon dioxide escaped, in addition, such an arrangement of the entrance made it possible to retain heat.
The igloo walls did not melt, but melted, and this made it possible to maintain a constant temperature in the room of about 20 ºС even in severe frosts.
This is the dwelling place of peoples living off the coast of the Bering Sea (Aleuts, Eskimos, Chukchi). This is a semi-dugout, the frame of which consists of the bones of a whale. Its roof is covered with earth. An interesting feature of the dwelling is that it has two entrances: winter. through a multi-meter underground corridor, summer. through the roof.
This is the dwelling place of the Chukchi, Evens, Koryaks, Yukagirs. It’s portable. Tripods made of poles were installed in a circle, inclined wooden poles were tied to them, and a dome was attached from above. The whole structure was covered with walrus or deer skins.
Several poles were placed in the middle of the room to support the ceiling. The yaranga was divided into several rooms with the help of canopies. Sometimes a small house covered with skins was placed inside it.
Dwellings of the peoples of our country
Russia is a multinational country with more than 290 peoples living on its territory. Each has its own culture, customs, and its own traditional forms of dwellings. Here are the brightest ones:
This is one of the oldest dwellings of the peoples of our country. This is a hole dug to a depth of about 1.5 meters, the roof of which was a board, straw and a layer of earth. The wall inside was reinforced with logs, the floor was covered with clay mortar.
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The disadvantages of this room were that smoke could only come out through the door and the room was very damp due to the proximity of groundwater. Therefore, living in a dugout was not easy. But there were also advantages, for example, it completely ensured safety; in it one could not be afraid of hurricanes or fires; it maintained a constant temperature; she did not miss loud sounds; practically did not require repair and additional maintenance; it could be easily built. It is thanks to all these advantages that dugouts were very widely used as shelters during the Great Patriotic War.
The Russian hut was traditionally built from logs using an ax. The roof was made gable. To insulate the walls, moss was placed between the logs; over time, it became dense and closed all large cracks. The outside walls were coated with clay, which was stirred with cow dung and straw. This solution insulated the walls. In the Russian hut, a stove was always installed, the smoke from it came out through the window, and only starting from the 17th century they began to build chimneys.
The name comes from the word “smoke”, which meant “smoke”. Kuren was the name of the traditional home of the Cossacks. Their first settlements arose in floodplains (river reed thickets). Houses were built on stilts, the walls were made of wattle fences, plastered with clay, the roof was built of reeds, and a hole was left in it for smoke to escape.
This is the dwelling of the Telengits (people of Altai). It is a hexagonal structure of logs with a high roof covered with larch bark. The ailas always had an earthen floor, but in the center. hearth.
The indigenous people of the Khabarovsk Territory, the Orochi, built a kava dwelling, which looked like a gable hut. The side walls and roof were covered with spruce bark. The entrance to the dwelling has always been from the side of the river. The place for the hearth was laid out with pebbles and fenced with wooden beams, which were coated with clay. Wooden bunks were built near the walls.
This type of dwelling was built in a mountainous area composed of soft rocks (limestone, loess, tuff). In them, people cut down caves and equipped comfortable dwellings. Thus, whole cities appeared, for example, in the Crimea, the cities of Eski-Kermen, Tepe-Kermen and others. The rooms were equipped with hearths, chimneys, niches for dishes and water, windows and doors were cut through.
Dwellings of the peoples of Africa
The most famous dwellings of the peoples of Africa are Rondavel and Ikukwane.
This is the home of the Bantu people. It has a round base, a cone-shaped roof, stone walls, which are held together by a mixture of sand and manure. Inside, the walls were coated with clay. The roof was covered with reeds.
It is a huge domed thatched house that is traditional for the Zulu. Long rods, reeds, tall grass were intertwined and reinforced with ropes. The entrance was closed with special shields.
The monk’s cell. his dwelling in the monastery
The monastery is not only a stone or wooden religious structure. People live in the monastery. novices, monks. And each of them has their own small dwelling. a cell.
The meaning of the word cell
Words similar in sound and meaning exist in many languages. In the Greek language there is the word κελλίον, in the Latin language. cella, in Old Russian. kelia. They all mean about the same thing. The meaning of the word cell is a small room, a modest dwelling of a monk.
Most likely, this word got into the Russian language at the time of the baptism of Russia. Since Russia was baptized on the model of the Greek Orthodox Church, then the word itself has, apparently, Greek origin.
Male and female abodes
It is not recommended for strangers to enter the monastic cells. And it is strictly forbidden to persons of the opposite sex. That is why monasteries are built on the basis of gender. There are monasteries and monasteries.
Monasteries are a complex of religious and economic buildings and structures. As a rule, there are several churches and temples on the territory of the monastery. And monks keep them in working and safe condition. They live here, on the territory of the monastery, in cells located in separate, special buildings.
How do people get to monasteries? Differently. Each person who decides to devote his life to serving God has his own destiny. And those who come to the monastery are rarely asked the reasons that led him to this. Unless the person himself wants to talk about it.
Like people, monasteries have their own history. Many monasteries were destroyed during the events of the beginning of the last century. It was the time of the Civil War and the Red Terror, when religion was outlawed. At that time, atheism prevailed. Two world wars also contributed to the destruction of the country’s monasteries.
Today the number of monasteries is growing. Previously abandoned monasteries are being restored. New monasteries are being built. New cells are also being built for newly tonsured monks. And maybe soon the world will recognize new Nestors. chroniclers.
Cells are located in special buildings. fraternal buildings or hostels. In Russian monasteries, one or two monks live in cells. The rooms have a simple look. Furniture usually includes a table, chair or stool, and a bed. Instead of a bed, there can be a trestle bed.
Often in a monastery cell there is a small individual iconostasis of small icons. There is a shelf for books in almost every room. These are monastic and religious books. All his free time, of which the monk has little, he spends in his cell. Here monks spend time in prayer, doing handicrafts or reading spiritual books.
Actually, monastic life has hardly changed over the centuries. Usually monks are busy in obedience or prayer. Obedience, in simple terms, is chore. Monasteries maintain their buildings and structures in good condition with their own efforts. Only for special or hazardous work are specialists from outside.
Sometimes, especially in ancient times, monasteries were located in secluded places, sometimes in caves and mountains. And, accordingly, the cells were cut out in the rocks. The most famous such building is the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. Of course, monks no longer live in these caves today.
When there was no book printing in the Russian state, books were written by hand. And it was the monks who wrote them in their cells. It took months and even years to manufacture. writing one book. They wrote them on separate sheets, which were then fastened together and covered with a strong cover.
Books were not only rewritten, but also rewritten. These were some kind of printing houses. Many copies were made from one book. Circulation, of course, was not in the millions, as it is now. These were still single copies. You can’t write much by hand.
And in general, in ancient times, education was concentrated in monasteries and churches. There are still Sunday schools at the monasteries. And once it was the main type of education available to the bulk of the country’s population. Then these were parish schools.
Not only books were written in the narrow monastic cell. The history of the country was recorded in the cell of the monk-chronicler. It is from such chronicles that today it is possible to find out what happened in those distant times.
The most famous monk chronicler is Nestor. This monk lived in the above-mentioned Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. It was thanks to his works that the “Tale of Bygone Years” was born in 1113. It tells the history of the Russian state from 852 to 1117. Subsequently, the chronicle was rewritten and supplemented many times.
The convent is headed by an abbess chosen from among the sisters. If there are no worthy candidates in the monastery itself, the ruling bishop nominates his own person. The abbess can be distinguished from the other sisters of the monastery by the golden pectoral cross and the right to give a blessing. You can address the abbess as follows: “mother abbess, mother Neonilla (or another name), or just mother”.
He tonsured the first degree of monasticism. the ryasophor. accompanied by certain prayers, a cruciform cutting of hair. The name can change to a new one or remain the same. At the same time, the one who is tonsured does not take the vows, but his very decision to take the monastic path testifies to the promise to God to live a blameless life. He dresses in a hood and a cassock (therefore a cassock), he is called a cassock monk or monk.
When tonsured into the mantle (small schema), the tonsured one makes vows to God:
- obedience (to the abbot and brethren).
A strand of hair is also cut crosswise and a new name is already being named. Wears monastic clothes and is called a mantle monk or usually a monk.
The rite of tonsure into the great schema is similar, but performed with greater severity and solemnity. At the same time, a new name is given, schematic clothing (kukol). They are called schema monk or schema monk.
This is a special type of monastic activity, which is started only by those who have passed the ordeal in the communal monasteries, having received the necessary spiritual practice and experience.
For the realization of special ascetic deeds and prayer, such a monk can receive the blessing of the governor for a secluded life. The monk remains to live in obedience to the abbot, but is freed from the monastic labor and is somewhat removed from all the brethren. Modern hermitage is more often than not a seclusion within the confines of an ordinary communal monastery.
One of the earliest forms of monastic organization. This is a communal-type monastery that arose at the very beginning of the Christian era. The inhabitants of Kinovia receive everything they need for life from the abbot. In their turn, they are obliged to work, they do it free of charge. The fruits of their activities belong to the monastery, the monks are deprived of property rights, they have no personal property. The first cynovia was founded by St. Pachomius the Great.
What is a monastery and monasticism in Orthodoxy
The spiritual revival of society has caused a rise in interest in the Orthodox faith, the church, and monasticism. But many of us do not know what a monastery is and why the institution of monasticism exists in the church. The essence of this historically obscure phenomenon is in the search for continuous communion with God, as well as in imitation and assimilation, as far as possible for a person, to the image of the Lord Jesus Christ.
- What is a monastery
- Origin of the word
- The meaning of the concept
- Historical reference
- Types of monasteries
- Types by type of subordination
- Structure of monasteries
- Management and caretakers
- Who lives in monasteries
- Forms of monastic life
- Skete life
- The order of the monks
- How to enter a monastery
- Preparation for monasticism
- Divine service
- Rules of conduct in the monastery
How to enter a monastery
You can enter the path of monasticism only if it is the will of God. While in the world, the decision is properly considered, weighed, and advice is sought from the confessor. If this period has passed, and the Christian came to the monastery as a laborer, it is time to take the next step. to test your desire for strength, as well as yourself for suitability for monastic life.
It is necessary to live for some time in the monastery, performing various obediences, getting acquainted with the way of life in the monastery. But the real preparation for monasticism begins with the admission of a person to the number of brothers (sisters) of the monastery, when the laborer becomes a monastery novice.
Who lives in monasteries
Any believer who does not have family and other obligations, the list of which is determined by church canons, can choose the monastic path. This is a high calling, the way to which is shown by the Lord Himself. He leads each person to the monastic path in his own special way.
Those who enter this difficult path impose the bonds of vows on themselves:
- unceasing prayer;
- evangelical love;
The struggle with sin is waged by a monk throughout his life, not out of fear of eternal punishment, but solely out of love for God.