This type of cable, as a network cable, is still widely used to organize a connection between a computer and a printing device. It usually consists of a twisted pair, which is one or more pairs of conductors that are twisted together and covered with a plastic sheath.
Knocking down insulated conductors in such a cable is carried out in order to increase the degree of connection of conductors belonging to the same pair. Due to their ease of installation and low cost, such cables are widely used to connect a printer to a computer.
To crimp the connector on such a cord, two options are used. One is designed to create a straight-through cable, the other is a crossover cable. For the manufacture of conductors, a monolithic copper wire is used. The thickness of their insulation is only 0.2 mm, and polypropylene, polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride are usually used as its material. The length of such a cable can easily be 10 meters or more. in general, no more than 100.
The most widespread option these days for connecting a printing device to a personal computer is such an option as a USB cable for a printer and an MFP. The name of this cord stands for “Universal Serial Bus”. With its help, you can organize a fairly strong and reliable connection. The cord for connecting this type of printer is presented in two versions, namely: 2.0 and 3.0. If the first option will provide a data transfer rate of up to 380 Mbit, then for the second this parameter is significantly increased. up to 5 Gbit.
These cables typically include one pair of wires twisted together to form a long line and two separate wires. The latter are designed to supply power to the connected peripheral device. Premium USB cables have a shielding film that attaches to metal connector housings on both sides.
It is also worth noting that the USB printer cable is equipped with a technology called Plug And Pay. Its presence allows the PC to determine the model of the device, as well as connect it and update the available drivers. The length of such a cable, depending on the manufacturer and type, can vary greatly, but usually it does not exceed 5 meters. For example, the USB multimedia connection cable is 1.8 meters long, which is sufficient for home use. The USB printer has two male connectors. It allows you to seamlessly connect to various peripheral devices such as a printer and scanner. In addition, this type of cable has increased strength and excellent wear resistance. In general, the popularity of a cable such as a USB cable is due not only to its affordable cost, but also to its high data transfer rate.
There is also a power supply unit, which is usually used for HP inkjet printers. In addition, the lpt cord has acquired some distribution. Often, one side of it is connected to the USB port of a personal computer, and the other to the parallel port of the printer through a special conductor. Those. modern versions of such cables are bi-directional parallel communication interfaces. Such a cable has support for speeds over 12 Mbps. In addition, this type of lpt has support for many operating systems, including Windows 7.
As for the length, for example, for a DB36 IEEE-1284 cable, this parameter is only 90 cm.That is, as a power cord, this option cannot have 10 meters in length, but in general this is not a problem if the printer used at home or the distance between the device and the workplace with a computer in the office is not so great.
Features of USB cable for printer connection
- acceptable cost;
- excellent baud rate, especially in version 3.0.
On the market there are cables of version 2.0, which transmit data at a speed of up to 380 Mbps, and version 3.0. their speed is already about 5 Gbps.
The USB printer cable has type A (oblong) and type B (square) connectors. The first is for connecting to a PC and laptop, the second is for a printer and MFP.
The Type A connector is a wide plug with 6 pins inside. It matches the standard USB port found in all modern computers.
Type B connector, square, serrated, 4 pins inside. For USB cable version 3.0, this connector will be blue and larger in size.
The modern wire is equipped with Plug And Pay technology. With its help, the computer independently determines the model of the peripheral device, connects it and installs driver updates.
As for the length, 1.8-3 meters will be enough for home use. In special cases, purchase up to 5 meters.
IMPORTANT! Size matters! The longer the length, the lower the baud rate. Special attention should be paid to owners of multifunctional devices. for them the maximum allowable cord length is 3 meters.
At one or both ends of the cable, it is desirable to have a ferrite ring (barrel), which serves as a filter against high-frequency interference.
In order to avoid problems with signal fading, it is required to check the correspondence of the length indicated on the marking of the cord to its real dimensions. AWG marking is American (in inches), therefore below we attach its translation into European metric:
- 28 AWG = 0.81 meters.
- 26 AWG = 1.31 meters.
- 24 AWG = 2.08 meters.
- 22 AWG = 3.33 meters.
- 20 AWG = 5.00 meters.
- HIGH-SPEED 2.0 or 3.0. baud rate.
- Shield. the cord is protected from foil or additional mesh.
- Pair. cable conductors are twisted into a pair.
What is the name of the wire from the printer to the computer
Often, when connecting a printer, errors are displayed or defects are detected when printing. The problem often lies in a faulty cable that connects to a PC or laptop. Replacing the wire can solve it. But what kind of cables are there and how to choose them? In the article, we propose to disassemble their types and characteristics.
Network cable for connecting the printer to the computer
The network cable is not as popular as the USB cable, but some printers and MFPs connect to the computer through it. It is a twisted pair with one or more pairs of copper conductors included in it, twisted together and covered with a plastic sheath. Insulation of conductors is 0.2 mm, made of polypropylene, polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride. This design increases the level of communication between conductors of one pair.
- ease of installation;
- low price.
IMPORTANT! To prevent problems with printing or a complete failure to reproduce it, a crimped wire should be selected. Crimping can be done on your own. This requires the actual cable and connector. Choose the length at your discretion, but not more than 100 meters.
What are the names of other types of printer wires
HP inkjet printers use an AC adapter. LPT cord is not widely used in modern printing devices. Some time ago, printers and scanners were connected to a computer exclusively through LPT ports, so it was impossible to work with them from a laptop and netbook. There are adapters, but often their quality and reliability leaves much to be desired.
Of the advantages, high data transfer speed should be highlighted. However, the drawback is the length of the cord. about one meter, which contrasts especially with the mains wire. suitable for home than office.
So, we have analyzed the main types of wires that are used to connect a printer and multifunctional devices to a computer and laptop.
The choice of cable should be considered carefully, since purchasing a wire of low quality and not meeting your requirements, you run the risk of getting problems of the following nature:
- the computer does not “see” the printer;
- low data transfer rate;
- refusal to start printing;
- connection drops periodically.
The above information can help you when choosing a cable to connect your printer to your PC.
What are the displays for Arduino and how to connect them
Microcontrollers allow you to make any automation and monitoring systems. But for the interaction of technology and a person, both input devices are needed. various buttons, levers, potentiometers, and output devices. light indicators (bulbs), various sound signaling devices (tweeters) and finally displays. In this article we will take a look at character displays for Arduino, how to connect them and get them to work.
Segment (such as on a digital watch);
Segments are used to indicate simple values, for example: temperature, time, number of revolutions. These are used in calculators and on budget household appliances to this day. Information is displayed by highlighting certain characters.
They can be both liquid crystal and LED. Alphanumeric displays can be found on old household appliances, toys, industrial equipment, and more. They are also called sign-synthesizing, textual, symbolic. Consist of a set of large pixels. Can be made using LCD, TFT and OLED technology.
Even a monitor or a smartphone screen can be attributed to graphic displays, I think no special explanations are required. The article will focus specifically on the joint work of synthesizing or character displays and Arduino.
Displays of this type can simultaneously display a certain number of characters, limited by geometric dimensions. They are marked according to the following pattern:
Where the first two digits are the number of characters in the line and the second pair is the number of lines. Thus, the display named 1602 can display 2 lines of 16 characters at a time.
Displays are distinguished by the type of data input:
Parallel data input involves the transfer of 8 or 4-bit words over 10 or 6 pins, respectively (Fig. Below is a connection diagram for controlling 4 bits). In addition to the data, power is supplied to the display. Consider this when designing, otherwise you may not have enough pins of the Arduino board.
Transferring data to the display using I2C will take 4 pins of your Arduino, 2 of which are power and 2 are data. But let’s take a closer look at this issue a little below.
Among the domestic manufacturers, the MELT company can be distinguished. Among the products, there are a number of different displays. For example, below is a display labeled 20S4, by analogy with the previous one, this tells us that it displays 4 lines of 20 characters each.
It is built on the KB1013VG6 controller from ANGSTREM, which is similar to HD44780 from HITACHI and KS0066 from Samsung. On which the vast majority of Chinese displays are built. By the way, like the displays on the listed chips, it supports the standard parallel control library Arduino IDE, but more on that later.
Sign-synthesizing displays can be with or without backlighting, they can also differ in the color of the displayed symbols. The brightness of the backlight and the contrast of the image are usually adjustable. Below is an example of a diagram from the datasheet, for the above-mentioned MELT.
Variable resistor R and serves to adjust the brightness.
We will consider the connection on the display type 1602. First of all, pay attention to the pin labels. There are two options, numbering. In the two pictures below, everything is fine. from 1 to 16 output.
Note that VSS refers to land. The rest of the pin assignments are identical. But you can often find non-standard numbering:
What do you see? Contacts are signed only 1, 14 and 15. And in the wrong sequence. Otherwise, contacts 15 and 16 still remain the anode and cathode of the backlight, and 1 and 2 are the common contact and the plus of the power supply. Be vigilant and pay attention to this fact when connecting!
(Vcc) “” power supply. Most often it is 5 volts.
adjusting the contrast of characters. It is carried out through a potentiometer installed between the “” power supply and this contact. The higher the voltage, the less brightness and power consumption.
(RS) Address signal. By the presence of a signal from the arduino at this input, the display controller understands whether a command signal (moving the cursor, for example) or a character code for display is on the data line.
(E) Data Access Permissions. When there is a logical “1”. the display is executing a command or a character.
6-14. parallel data input is provided through these pins.
(BLA) backlight anode. So that it lights up at full brightness. 5V is served here.
(BLC) backlight cathode. Connect to ground.
We have considered one of the examples of connecting to Arduino in 4-bit mode above. Now take a look at the wiring diagram in 8 bit control mode. By the way, you may have noticed a variable resistor. It is needed to adjust the brightness of the backlight, as mentioned earlier.
Thus, half of the inputs of the Arduino UNO board are occupied. Of course, if you use MEGA, this will not be such a significant problem, but still it is not rational, especially if you are going to connect a group of sensors and control keys.
If you buy this module separately from the display, do not forget about the location and numbering of the pins, which we discussed earlier.
The comb shown below is simply soldered to the display, and the four contacts at the end of the board are connected to the Arduino pins, there is also a third group of two contacts (pictured at the back). this is the backlight on, the models are supplied with a jumper installed.
The scheme of such a module looks like this:
And this is how it looks soldered directly to the display pins. Most models are sold pre-wired.
However, to use it, you will need to find the LiquidCrystal_I2C library on the network; it is not in the standard set of the Arduino IDE, which is current at the time of this writing.
Let’s remind the pinout of the Arduino UNO boards, according to the numbering of the contacts, it basically coincides with the Nano and some others (to enlarge, click on the picture).
To work on I2C, you need to generate 2 information signals. SDA and SCL, pay attention to the lower right corner of the figure. These pins in arduino are combined with A4 and A5 analog inputs.
You cannot reassign them to other conclusions.
Then the wiring diagram will look like this:
Agree, there are much less wires! Only 4 wires go from the arduino to the display. And only two signal pins are used!
But just connecting, you will not succeed, you must know the address of the device, for this there is another group of contacts, where the address is set using jumpers. This is indicated in the initializing command of the corresponding library, more on this later.
Naturally, we need some kind of sketch that can show an image on a character display. If you want to “directly” work with the display, you will have to study datasheets and symbol tables for each specific product. But Arduino was created for simple and quick prototyping of electronic devices. Therefore, we will go the other way and take advantage of the benefits of civilization. We have already mentioned that in the standard set of libraries in the Arduino IDE there is a ready-made solution for working with LCD displays. You can find it here:
By the way, after clicking, the line with the declaration of the library connection appears automatically.
Also in the Arduino IDE there are several examples for working with the display. They reflect basic operations and functions.
Consider the simplest “Hello Word”. The example completely coincides with what is in the standard IDE set, I just translated the text of the comments into Russian. Please note. this is an example of working in 4-bit mode.
Note that in this code example, the first command specifies several display size, number of lines and characters, but also its I2C address. Namely. 0x27, which corresponds to the missing jumpers. In general, this is necessary in order to connect several displays (8 pieces) to two signal wires.
You can find the official documentation for the liquidcrystal library with examples and explanations on the official Arduino website:
A selection of video tutorials
So that it is not difficult for you to master the skill of working with the display, we have made a selection of video tutorials on this topic.
It turns out that making friends between the Arduino board and the display is not at all difficult. You have access to the possibility of both parallel data transmission and serial using the I2C bus, which to choose is up to you, both in terms of convenience and the requirements for the speed of the system as a whole. Write in the comments what questions you need to consider in more detail and what exactly would you like to see microcontrollers!
For even more information about Arduino and the features of its use in various schemes, see the e-book. Arduino for dummies. Illustrated how-to guide.
recently, a new course by Maxim Selivanov “Programming Nextion Displays” has been released. This is the “arduino” in the touchscreen display world. But, there is very little information on it.
What are Nextion Displays? In short, these displays are programmable displays with a touchscreen and UART for creating a variety of interfaces on the screen. A very convenient and simple development environment is used for programming, which allows you to create even very complex interfaces for various electronics in just a couple of evenings! And all commands are transmitted via the UART interface to the microcontroller or computer.
Here’s everything to take your Nextion Displays to the next level: Programming NEXTION Displays
Maxim Selivanov. author of video courses “Programming microcontrollers for beginners”, “Programming microcontrollers in the C language”, “Creating devices on microcontrollers”. For more information about him and his video courses, see here. Learning to program and create devices on microcontrollers
Varieties of cables for connecting a video intercom
Video intercoms use various cable lines, the type of which is determined depending on the features of the system, the area of application and other indicators. In this case, usually the choice of wires is based on the purpose of use. Cable lines provide signal transmission, and, if necessary, can supply voltages to individual nodes of the video system.
Its structure can contain from one to several pairs. All conductors are isolated from each other. The cable is divided into 7 categories and is called “twisted pair”. Each class differs in frequency range. The intercom system uses a “twisted pair” CAT 5 category. It has 4 copper conductors of different colors, twisted at a certain pitch. There is no shield in this type, since the properties of the twisted pair are used to combat interference during the transmission of differential signals.
Category 5 has found its active use in telephony and for broadcasting video signals. Advertising and information systems widely use twisted pair signal transmission in vehicles, shopping malls, and entertainment venues. Durable polyethylene insulation allows CAT 5 to be used outdoors.
- Affordable price.
- Versatility of use.
- Ability to transmit two signals over one wire.
- Ease of installation.
- Dependence on electromagnetic interference (attenuation and signal distortion).
- Low level of security during information transmission (radio interception and through the contacts of the twisted pair).
- Exposure of conductors to high frequency of current (signal attenuation).
- Operating temperature in the range (60 minus 55) degrees.
- Characteristic impedance 100 Ohm.
- Maximum operating voltage 125 V.
- Frequency range 0.772. 100 MHz.
- Core diameter 0.51054 mm.
Basic requirements for cables
Depending on the territory where the video intercom is located, it may be necessary to lay cables inside and outside the premises. In this regard, certain requirements are imposed on the connecting components in terms of the characteristics of the insulation and current-carrying conductors.
As the latter, copper wire is mainly used, the diameter of which varies depending on the type of cable. In inexpensive products, it is replaced by steel. In this case, the wire is additionally coated with a thin layer of copper. Similar cores are used:
- – in a coaxial cable, which is used to connect components of an analog video system;
- – in twisted pair (cable of several twisted conductors), intended for connecting digital equipment.
Due to the fact that the video intercom is installed in order to increase the safety of the home (house, apartment, etc.), it is not recommended to use products with steel conductors. This is due to the peculiarities of mounting elements of the entire system.
To connect the lines, blocks with terminals are used, which provide for fixing the wires with screws. Cables with steel cores are not secured well in these clamps. In addition, the presence of a variable contact in such wires may cause damage to the video intercom. If, under the influence of external factors, the copper coating has been erased, the steel will be covered with a layer of corrosion. Especially often, such consequences occur at the connection points of the panel installed externally. Therefore, to connect the elements of the video system, wires with copper conductors should be used.
If all the components of the video intercom are located indoors, then there are no special requirements for the quality and characteristics of insulation. This is explained by the fact that the wiring is not exposed to moisture and other destructive factors. For outdoor installations, it is recommended to use polyethylene insulated cables. The material preserves the veins in conditions of high humidity, when exposed to temperature extremes and ultraviolet radiation. Polyethylene insulated wire is characterized by noise immunity.
If a video intercom that supports the transmission of an analog signal is used, but a calling panel mounted outside the premises is implemented within the system, a separate wire must be laid. It is designed to provide voltage to the camera.
In such conditions, a combined cable (KVK) is used. Thanks to this wire, costs are reduced and the installation of the entire system is easier. The combo cable is based on a 75 ohm coaxial cable. It also includes a two-wire line that supplies voltage. Such cables are marked as follows: KVK-2PV (PP).2×0.5 (0.75). Number 2 indicates that they are based on the RK-75 wire. The inner insulating layer is made of expanded polyethylene (P). External cable protection is provided by either polyvinyl chloride (V) or light-stabilized polyethylene (P). The last figures show the size of the cross-section of the conductors (0.5 and 0.75 m), as well as their number (2)
The electrical parameters of the KVK are set by a radio frequency cable. Wires with an insulating layer of polyvinyl chloride are used for organizing indoor video systems. If you plan to lay cables outside, you will need polyethylene insulated connecting lines that can withstand intense temperature changes and high humidity.
KVK series products are intended for underground laying. In such cases, the wiring “hides” in special sleeves made of metal or plastic. If you plan to install overhead lines, you should purchase products of the KVK-Pt series. They are complemented by a steel cable through which the cables are fixed.
Features of the
This technique combines the functions of an ordinary intercom with the possibility of video surveillance. The video intercom is a system consisting of the following components:
- locking device;
- door station intercom;
- Power Supply.
Different cables are used to connect these devices. You should focus on the manufacturer’s requirements, technical tasks and climatic conditions. Correct calculation, high-quality installation, high quality materials are the key to long-term operation of the intercom system without failures.
How to choose a video intercom cable?
“My home is my fortress”. this is how the well-known expression says. This is a place where you feel protected, where you want to return. A video intercom will help you feel safe. a device designed to protect you and your family from unwanted guests and intruders. In the article, we’ll talk about how to choose a cable for a video intercom.
The installation of the printer in this situation is carried out according to the scheme:
Acquaintance with the information about the device in the instructions or, in its absence, on the equipment case. Requires printer model and series.
- Searching the internet site of the equipment manufacturer.
- Searching in the “driver” section of the site for the required program, taking into account the printer data and the installed operating system on the computer equipment.
- Downloading the program by clicking the “Download” button.
- The choice of the file storage location, which determines the download location of the found file.
- Navigating to the folder you just downloaded.
- Launching the “installation wizard” by clicking on the folder with the left mouse button.
- Installing the program as prompted by the “wizard”.
If the installation file contains the.inf extension, it is installed using the Add Printer Wizard interface. The service is called from the “Printers and Faxes” folder located in the “access panel” section.
Installation is carried out by clicking on the button “next”.
After reaching the “install printer software” section, select the desired printer modification in the “manufacturer” subsection, for which the installation of the program will begin when you click on the “install from disk” button. When opening the dialog box, use the “browse” button to specify the path to the file with the.inf extension. After the installation is complete, following the wizard’s prompts, you can print a test page.
Difference in printer connectors when connected to a PC
USB cable has different shapes of connectors on both sides.
The flat-shaped type A connector connects to computer technology. Connector B connects to the device for printing. As stated above, it can be made in two versions, depending on its modification.
Installing a printer using a disk is carried out in several stages:
1.Placing the installation disc into the drive.
- Process activation.
- License agreement.
- Selecting the folder into which the installation will be carried out. In most cases, the path is indicated by the program automatically, and there is no need to make any changes.
- Connecting the device for printing at the request of the installed program, after which the process will end in automatic mode.
- Restarting the computer at the request of the installed service.
Installing drivers on a computer is a simple process and practically no different from installing any other program.
The installation is carried out automatically. To implement it, you do not need to possess special skills. It is enough to follow the prompts of the “Installation Wizard”.
The difference lies in the need for additional actions, such as disconnecting and connecting equipment. To do this, just disconnect the USB cable for a few seconds, then connect and complete the installation.
Connecting the Printer to a Computer
What to look for when buying a USB cable
When buying a cable, you should pay attention to the version of the cable that should fit the device intended for it, equipped with USB 2.0 or USB 3.0 interfaces.
The blue and oblong connector is typical for USB 3.0, and the gray (white or black) square, with beveled corners is USB 2.0.
Connecting the Printer to the Mains
In order to connect the printing device to the mains, it should be installed in a place that is close to the computer equipment and to the outlet. For connection, use the cable that is included with the device upon purchase.
The cable looks like this:
The connection must be made directly to the socket. Connecting through an uninterruptible power supply can lead to rapid discharge and failure of the battery, which, moreover, will not be able to provide electricity to the equipment due to its consumption of a large amount of energy.
All printer problems can be roughly divided into two categories:
- malfunctions of the printer itself;
- incorrect setting of the printing equipment.
If problems with equipment malfunctions can only be solved in workshops, then incorrect equipment settings can be easily corrected by yourself without special skills.
- Connecting an electric hob implies the installation of a separate circuit breaker and an RCD, these devices are selected with the following calculation: for a 16 A socket, a 25 A circuit breaker is required, and an RCD of 40 A. It is not permissible to simultaneously use the panel power line to connect several power devices.
- The body of the hob must be grounded, and not to the body or a wire from another appliance, but to the socket terminal, with a separate wire from the hob.
- Already most manufacturers sell equipment that is equipped with a protective grounding bus, it just needs to be connected to the grounding wire in the apartment.
Connecting electric and induction hobs
When buying a freestanding kitchen stove, in most cases, to connect it, you just need to plug the plug into the outlet. But many do not purchase a complete set, but only its upper part. the hob.
We propose to consider how to connect the hob Electrolux (Electrolux), Zanussi, Bosch (Bosch), Gorenje, Hansa, Samsung (Samsung), Siemens, Ariston and others with your own hands, as well as the cost of such a connection in specialized companies.
Induction panel: connection step by step
Connecting the induction hob to the network is not fundamentally different from installing a conventional hob, to make sure of this, the step-by-step instructions are presented below. Let’s consider how the induction panel is connected to the mains.
Power cords are of 2 types: three-core, early version, and four-core, newer version. To connect a flush-mounted panel, you need to purchase a power cord that matches your power outlet in the kitchen.
Open the connection cover. Look for a rectangle on the back of the panel, covered with a metal plate. Unscrew it with a screwdriver.
Hob connection diagram
We connect the cord and terminals.
After removing the back cover, you need to find the terminals of the device. Insert the strain relief into the hole first. We hold the cord with a plate. This is to prevent the wire from falling out. Then run the cord through the strain relief. Do not tighten the screws yet.
Connection to terminals
Remove copper strip.
Find the wires just above the hole. If an old-style induction cooker is connected, then there should be three wires, if a new model, then there will be four wires: two phase, one neutral and one ground.
The neutral terminal is located in the center, the phase conductors are on either side of it, and the earth terminal is at the bottom. Before starting to connect the wires, you need to check if there is a copper jumper connecting the neutral and ground wires. If you find it, just disconnect.
Connect the wires.
Align the wires with the terminals. The cable is connected to the panel with a brown phase wire, a blue neutral wire and a yellow-green ground wire.
To connect the wires, you will need to unscrew the terminal connection screws and install the wire in their place.
The first is to connect the ground, this is a yellow-green wire. Then neutral (blue wire). After that, we connect the brown phase wire to one of the two phase terminals. We install a copper jumper between the two phase terminals, which we removed from the neutral wire. This connection is suitable for apartments where the supply voltage is 220 V. Tighten the screws fastening the supply cable.
Check the strength of all connections, otherwise the machine will not withstand and you will need to repair not only the terminal block of the induction panel, but also all the wiring.
Tighten the power cable.
After connecting, check if the power cable is taut, it should not hang, but it should not be overtightened either.
Switching on the induction hob.
After connecting the power cable and applying voltage to it, turn on the panel and check its performance, in accordance with the passport data.
For correct operation and convenient control of the induction hob, an electronic control system is used, in contrast to the gas hob, where the adjustment is carried out by mechanically turning the shut-off valve. This solution is quite convenient and functional. You can monitor in real time the mode of each cooking sector of the panel.
Panel connection theory
The built-in hob is connected to a separate line with an outlet capable of withstanding a current of 32 to 40 A and providing a reliable ground. The lead-in cable contains three copper wires with a cross-section of at least 4 mm². Modern electrical wiring in the apartment also allows connection to a four-wire power cable.
There are two types of sockets for connecting panels:
- with three contacts;
Connecting the hob to one phase
- with four contacts.
Panel sockets and cables
If you independently connect the hob with the existing plug at the end of the cable, then this will not be difficult. But to connect to the mains cable from the stove, where there is no plug at the end, you already need some knowledge.
For example, a cable with four cores extends from the panel, and only three power wires come out from the wall. This means that the panel needs a two-phase connection, and there is only one in the apartment.
In this case, the technology is as follows: the brown and black wire from the cable from the hob is twisted together and connected to the phase wire, the power line, that comes out of the wall. The blue wire of the cable (neutral) is connected to the neutral wire of the power supply. There remains a protective ground wire of yellow-green color, it is connected to the same ground wire in the power line.
In the event that wires of the same color leave the wall, using a multimeter, you need to find out which of them is zero and which phase, and determine the integrity of the grounding conductor. The resulting wire connection must be insulated.
Before connecting a hob that already has a plug on the cable, it is imperative to check the correspondence between the power wires and the contacts inside the socket. Sometimes they can be different. To do this, the socket is disassembled, and using a multimeter, the correspondence of the connection is determined, if necessary, the wires are swapped.
Frequently asked Questions
No, for the hob, you must use special power outlets that can withstand a high load current. Let’s explain in more detail. The power of a typical hob is about 7 kW, which means, according to Ohm’s law, the load current will be 32 A (I = P / U = 7000 W / 230 V ≈ 32 A).
Considering that ordinary sockets are designed for a current of 10 or 16 amperes, it is impossible to connect the hob through such a plug connection, as this will lead to heating of the contact connections, which in turn can cause a fire. By limiting the current with a circuit breaker, for example 16 A, you will not be able to use the full power of the hob.
Ideally, separate electrical circuits should be used for the oven and hob. If it is not possible to lay separate electrical circuits, then the oven can be connected to the hob wires. How to do this is shown illustratively in the figure:
On the RCBO (as the people call the diffautomat) 16 A with double terminals, we connect the wires of the hob and the input power circuit. To the RCBO output we connect a conventional 16 A Euro socket (type F).
The protection of the power circuit is organized depending on the power of the hob. For typical 7 kW devices, it is enough to install a 32 A RCBO.
It all depends on two main factors. how much power is consumed by the oven you have purchased, and what section of aluminum wiring is connected to this socket? The installation of a dedicated line and a socket outlet from a distribution board is recommended for all electrical equipment with a power of more than 2 kW, but this position is purely advisory in nature. You can independently determine the load of the electrical circuit section for the entire kitchen or a group of rooms, which also include a plug socket with an oven.
You need to find out if the conductors of the electrical wiring in the wall will overheat when you turn on such powerful electrical equipment. To do this, in the passport of the heating appliance, find out its power, as a rule, it is indicated in kW or W. Then, determine the cross-section of the conductors routed to the power outlet. If you do not know the cross-section, you can use one of several methods proposed in this article on our resource: https://www.asutpp.ru/kak-opredelit-sechenie-provoda-ili-zhil-kabelya.html.
By the size of the cross-section, you can find out the throughput of your electrical circuit, for example, in accordance with table B.52.2 of GOST R 50571.5.52-2011, the permissible load for an aluminum two-core cable in the wall will be:
Knowing the power of the oven and the cross-section of the conductors of the electrical wiring, compare the throughput of the electrical circuit and the connected load. For example, if your oven will consume, say, 3 kW and electrical wiring made of aluminum 2.5 mm 2. then its bandwidth allows you to transmit 3.3 kW for a long time. However, note that the existing electrical wiring can normally withstand the operation of the oven, but other powerful electrical appliances cannot be turned on at this time.
The hob, indeed, can be powered from both a single-phase electrical circuit and a three-phase (in the latter case, two of the three phase conductors are involved). Connection options should be described in detail in the user manual and also shown on the nameplate near the terminal block.
An example of a hob label is shown below.
As you can see, in your case, it is enough to connect the neutral conductor to the “N” terminal, the protective conductor to the “PE”, and any two of the three phase conductors to “L1” and “L2”.
The most popular connector. There are usually several such holes in a computer.
The fact is that the USB port is universal. almost any modern equipment can be connected through it. And a printer with a scanner, and a mouse with a keyboard.
Now almost all manufacturers supply their equipment with a special cable: one end of which is inserted into the device, and the other into a USB connector.
In addition, this port serves not only for connecting computer equipment, but also for data transmission. For example, to transfer photos from a camera or mobile phone to a computer and vice versa.
Well, and, of course, USB flash drives are connected through this connector.
The indisputable advantage is the speed of information transfer. With this connection, it is quite high. data is transferred quickly.
But that’s not all! Through USB, you can connect the device not only to copy something from it, but also to recharge the battery. Thus, we transfer information and recharge equipment.
This applies to mobile phones, tablets, e-books, car navigators, music players and other devices.
Computer ports and connectors
Any computer has several small holes for connecting additional devices. Most of them are called ports. And some. connectors.
The line between what is called a port and what is a connector is quite thin. Therefore, you can use any of these definitions. it will not be a big mistake.
These openings are located on the back, front, or side depending on the type of computer.
In laptops, for example, the ports are located on the sides.
In stationary PCs, most of the connectors are located on the back of the system unit. And some are also placed on the front.
The number of ports depends on the manufacturer, the “coolness” of the computer and the date of its release.
Other computer ports / connectors
Since there are quite a few of them, I will tell you about each in just a few words.
Audio jacks. one for speakers or headphones, the other for a microphone. There are more of them, and they serve to connect other audio equipment. On many computers, they are specially made in different colors to make it clearer where to insert which cord.
Card reader. a flash memory card is inserted into it.
Thus, you can view the data recorded on it, as well as copy them.
Ethernet port. used to connect to a computer network (connecting computers to each other) and to connect wired Internet.
HDMI. used for high quality video transmission. Through it you can connect a computer and a modern TV, home theater or projector.
DisplayPort is another port for connecting audio and video equipment to a computer.
or Mini DisplayPort
DVI port. for transferring video from a computer to analog or digital devices (monitors, TVs, projectors).
eSATA. connection of external hard and optical drives (hard drives, CD \ DVD drives). Combo eSATA and USB ports are common. This connector can also be used as USB.
D-SUB (VGA). designed to connect an external monitor or projector. Now other more “advanced” ports (HDMI, DisplayPort) are used instead.
S-Video. a port for connecting analog devices (“old” TVs, etc.)
IEEE 1394 (FireWire, i-Link). port for digital devices and cameras, other multimedia equipment. It also connects some printers, scanners and external hard drives.
PS / 2. for connecting a wired computer mouse and keyboard. Often these are two multi-colored connectors for cords of the same colors.
RJ11. modem connector. Used to connect a computer to the Internet via a telephone line. Externally similar to the Ethernet port, only smaller in size.
COM. used to be used to connect modems or “ancient” mice, as well as to connect two computers. It is now obsolete and almost never used.
LPT. for connecting peripheral equipment (printers, scanners, etc.). Deprecated.
PCMCIA or ExpressCard port. Found in laptops. It is a long hole covered with a plastic plug or a hinged shutter.
Often used as an adapter. A special card is inserted into it, on which there are different ports / connectors for connecting other devices.
Even through this connector, you can “add” a TV tuner, hard drive, sound card and a lot of other equipment to your laptop. But now computers are produced without this port. USB connectors have supplanted it.
Still, a small universal port is much more convenient than some special cards.
Kensington Lock (Kensington lock slot). found on laptops.